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INTRODUCTION. Definition: Heat exchangers are devices that transfer or exchange heat from one media to another. It is used either for cooling or for heating purpose. The mediums flowing inside the heat exchanger may be gas or liquid depending upon the service requirements of the process.

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introduction
INTRODUCTION

Definition:

  • Heat exchangers are devices that transfer or exchange heat from one media to another. It is used either for cooling or for heating purpose.
  • The mediums flowing inside the heat exchanger may be gas or liquid depending upon the service requirements of the process.
  • The transfer of thermal energy (heat) can be accomplished in three ways:
  • Radiation
  • Convection
  • Conduction
types of heat exchanger
TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Shell-and-tube heat exchangers
  • Air-cooled heat exchangers
  • Double-pipe heat exchangers
  • Plate-and-frame heat exchangers
horizontal tube induced draft air cooled heat exchanger
Horizontal Tube, Induced-Draft Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger

Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers

Hood or Plenum

Fan Ring

Fan

Return Headers

Inlet Nozzles

Inlet Headers

Outlet Headers

Outlet Nozzles

Tube Bundle

Drive Assembly

Supports

slide7

Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger

Shell Cover Gasket

External Fin Pipe

Vent

Shell

Shell Cover

Return Bend (welded)

Drain

Fixed Support

Sliding Support

Shell End Piece

Twin Flange

shell and tube heat exchanger
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
  • These types of heat exchangers are most commonly and widely used in process industries.
  • Design criteria:

1. TEMA Standards

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association

2. API 660 (American Petroleum Institute) Standards

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services

shell and tube heat exchanger1
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Basic components of SHELL and TUBE heat exchanger are:
                • Tubes: Provide heat transfer surface
                • Shell or Body: Enclose the area in which fluids flow
                • Nozzles: Inlet and outlet for fluid flow
                • Tube Sheet: Hold the tube in place
shell and tube heat exchanger2
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Baffles: Support the tubes in proper position and guide the shell side flow to increase heat transfer
        • Channel Cover: Allows tube inspection
        • Pass Divider: Separate the tube side Flow
types shell and tube heat exchanger
TYPES SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Fixed Tube sheet
      • Tube sheet is welded to the shell.
      • Tube bundle is permanently installed.
      • Used when the temperature range is limited and shell side fouling is limited.
  • U-Tube or U-Bend:
      • Has only one tube sheet
      • Tube bundle can be removed
      • Used where temperature difference between shell and tube side fluids are high.
types shell and tube heat exchanger1
TYPES SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Floating Head
      • Tube bundle can be pulled out.
      • Tube sheet on one side is bolted between channel and shell.
      • Tube sheet on the other side floats inside the shell and free to move horizontally.
      • Test ring is required for hydro test.
fin fan cooler
FIN FAN COOLER
  • Tubes are Round or Rectangular.
  • Fins generally on the outside of the tubes.
  • For some applications fins may be inside of the tube.
  • Fins are attached to the tubes by a tight mechanical fit, tension winding, adhesive bonding, soldering , brazing and welding etc.
slide15

Typical Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger

Lifting Lug

Air Seal

Tube Keeper (top)

Header

Air Seal

Tube

Air Seal

Nozzle

Header

Fins

Tube spacer

Side Frame

Tube Support (bottom)

plate heat exchanger
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Consist of a number of corrugated metal plates in mutual contact.
  • Each plate having four ports( Inlet and Outlet).
slide17

Aout

Nozzle

Bin

Header

Separating Sheet

Corrugated Sheet

Effective Width

Heat Transfer Section

Effective Length

STREAM A

A

Side Bar

Distributor

Distribution Section

Cout

Bout

Ain

Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchanger

B

Cin

problems in heat exchanger
PROBLEMS IN HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Fouling:
      • Fouling is the build-up of different kinds of deposits on the parts of an exchanger.
      • Fouling effectively increases tube wall thickness due to fouling particles.
      • Pressure drop across exchanger increases.
      • Due to fouling, time of heat transfer increases.
problems in heat exchanger1
PROBLEMS IN HEAT EXCHANGER
  • Tube leakage:
      • Removal of metal due to fluid flowing in or across the tube.
      • Can eat away and weaken tube metal which may lead to tube leak
  • Scale Formation:
      • Build up of solid impurities on the inside of a tube wall.
  • Tube Leak:
      • It affects heat transfer process.
cleaning of heat exchanger
CLEANING OF HEAT EXCHANGER
  • The method of cleaning is selected depending upon type of deposit and facilities in the plant.

1. High pressure water jet wash:

      • Hydro jet machine is used .
      • Water jet pressure around 5000 to 10000 PSI.
      • During hydro jet cleaning all required PPE shall be used as the water jet can easily puncture and tear the skin.
cleaning of heat exchanger1
CLEANING OF HEAT EXCHANGER

2. Chemical cleaning:

  • Involves circulation of hot wash oil or light distillate through tubes or shell.
  • Cleaning compounds should be compatible with the metallurgy of the exchanger.
  • Sometimes commercial cleaning solutions are used.

3. Mechanical Cleaning:

  • Involves tube cleaning using a wire brush or scrappers.
  • Care should be taken to avoid damaging the tubes
heat exchanger maintenance
HEAT EXCHANGER MAINTENANCE
  • ACTIVITIES:
  • 1. SCAFFOLDING
  • 2.BLINDING
  • 3.INSULATION REMOVAL
  • 4.DRAINING
  • 5.HEAD COVER REMOVAL
  • 6.PRE-INSPECTION
  • 7.BUNDLE PULLINGOUT/HYDROJET CLEANING
  • 8.TUBE BLOWING
  • 9.SHELL SIDE/TUBE SIDE HYDROTEST/PNEUMATIC TEST
  • 10.IRIS TEST
  • 11. PLUG INSERT/WELD
  • 12.RE-HYDROTEST
  • 13.HEAD COVER BOXUP
  • 14.BLIND REMOVAL