John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people
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John M. Murrin, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power A History of the American People. Chapter 23 War and Society 1914-1920. The Great War. Long-term Causes Militarism Imperialism Nationalism System of Alliances. The Great War. Short-term cause

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John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

John M. Murrin, et al.Liberty, Equality, PowerA History of the American People

Chapter 23

War and Society


The great war
The Great War

  • Long-term Causes

    • Militarism

    • Imperialism

    • Nationalism

    • System of Alliances

The great war1
The Great War

  • Short-term cause

    • Archduke Ferdinand (heir to throne in Austria-Hungary) assassinated by Serbian nationalist in 1914

    • System of Alliances takes effect

European great war
“European” Great War

  • Wilson declared US neutrality

  • Lusitania sunk by German U-boats (submarines) in 1915

  • Germany signs Sussez pledge in 1916

Us involvement
US Involvement

  • Germany announced unlimited submarine warfare = US breaks diplomatic relations

Us involvement1
US Involvement

  • Zimmerman Note – proposed German-Mexican alliance

Us involvement2
US Involvement

  • Russian Revolution – new government signed peace treaty with Germany prompting Allied intervention in Russian civil war

Us involvement3
US Involvement

  • U.S. Declaration of War – April 6, 1917

Wilson s fourteen points
Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  • Abolish secret treaties

  • Freedom of the seas

  • Arms limitations

  • Self-determination

  • Minority rights

  • League of Nations

Mobilizing for war
Mobilizing for War

  • Committee on Public Information

    • George Creel

    • Propaganda to support the war effort

Mobilizing for war1
Mobilizing for War

  • Espionage & Sedition Acts

    • Schenck v U.S.

      • Civil rights can be limited if there is a “clear and present danger’” of harm the U.S.

“liberty steak”

“liberty cabbage”

Mobilizing for war2
Mobilizing for War

Cartoon by H. J. Glintenkamp from July 1917 issue of The Masses.  This cartoon was one of three cited by the Postmaster as violating the Espionage Act.

Mobilizing for war3
Mobilizing for War

  • War Industries Board

  • National War Labor Board

Mobilizing for war4
Mobilizing for War

  • Food Administration

    • Hebert Hoover

  • Fuel Administration

Mobilizing for war5
Mobilizing for War

  • Government control of railroads

    • legislation v. volunteerism

  • Liberty and Victory loans (2/3 initial cost)

Mobilizing for war6
Mobilizing for War

  • Conscription

Us troops over there
US Troops “Over There”

  • General John (Black Jack) Pershing

  • US Operations in Europe

Dead Americans of the 38th Infantry at Mezy

July 21, 1918

Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvove, France

November 8, 1918

Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvoye, France, 8 Nov 1918

Modern war
Modern War

  • Tanks

Modern war1
Modern War

  • Submarines

Modern war2
Modern War

  • Airplanes

Modern war4
Modern War

  • Trench Warfare

Treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles

  • The Big Four

    • Partisan perception of Wilson’s attendance

  • Compromise & the League of Nations

Vittorio Orlando - Italian premier who wanted territory promised in Treaty of London (1915), and maybe more.David Lloyd George - British prime minister who wanted the support of the British public by punishing Germany.Georges Clemenceau - French prime minister who wanted the Treaty to prevent Germany from attacking France ever again.Woodrow Wilson - American president who wanted the League of Nations formed, and a fair treaty for Germany.

Treaty of versailles1
Treaty of Versailles

  • Rhineland demilitarized

  • War guilt

  • Reparations

  • Military restrictions on Germany

Treaty of versailles2
Treaty of Versailles

  • Ratification in the US Senate

    • Irreconcilables & Reservationists opposed treaty

    • Wilson went on speaking tour to garner support

Senate opinion on the treaty was divided into three distinct views:

Supporters. Democrats loyal to Wilson wanted the treaty to be ratified in its original form without any amendments or reservations; some within this group were receptive to a small number of minor changes.

Reservationists. This group claimed to be in favor of the treaty, but only after including a series of reservations prior to ratification. Senator Lodge of Massachusetts was the leader of this faction and was personally dedicated to frustrating the aims of his rival, Wilson. Other senators in this group sincerely favored the treaty, but wanted some modification to protect vital American interests. The Reservationists were the largest of the three factions.

Irreconcilables. Isolationist senators, including Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, William E. Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, opposed the treaty and American entry into the League of Nations under any circumstances. They had counseled against entering the war in the first place and now opposed participation in European affairs.

Treaty of versailles3
Treaty of Versailles views:

  • Ratification in the US Senate

    • Wilson collapsed on the speaking trail – then suffered a major stroke in the White House

    • Senate voted on the treaty with the Lodge reservations attached

Treaty of versailles4
Treaty of Versailles views:

  • Treaty rejected - twice

Election of 1920
Election of 1920 views:

  • Warren G. Harding (Rep.)

    • Promised a ‘return to normalcy’

    • Return to pre-WWI isolationism