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Impact of Entrepreneurial Curriculum and Co-Curricular activities on Entrepreneurial Leadership Development among Female University Students in Pakistan by Dr.khalid Rashid Zaheer Asghar. Background of the study. Education is taken as corporate enterprise

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Impact of Entrepreneurial Curriculum and Co-Curricular activities on Entrepreneurial Leadership Development among Female University Students in Pakistanby Dr.khalid RashidZaheerAsghar

background of the study
Background of the study
  • Education is taken as corporate enterprise
  • Private sector shares the responsibility of education (policy 1998)
  • Disciplines are market and need oriented
  • Women as a dynamic and prolific group have started undertaking male dominant areas
background of the study contd
Background of the study contd.
  • An obligation to address 52% of the population
  • Concept of sustainable development is to be addressed by education
  • Millennium goal development is a challenge for education
  • Women rely less on government resources and opportunities
  • About 3% women are self employed
  • Women entrepreneurs are growing and were 15.7 (United Nation’s Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in Pakistan 2002-03)
  • Entrepreneurship education within the United States has improved considerably over the last decade (Moutray, 2006).
  • Entrepreneurship Educationresearch shows a positive correlation between level of education andentrepreneurial orientations (Brush & Hisrich, 1991). Dolinsky, Caputo, Pasumarty, andQuazi (1993), (Dolinsky et al., 1993).
research questions
Research questions
  • Is there an impact of entrepreneurship education, on entrepreneurial leadership development, amongst female university students in Pakistan?
  • The major question is further subdivided into two questions
  • Q1- Whether there exists an impact of entrepreneurship education on female entrepreneurs?
  • Q2- What leadership style is being followed by women entrepreneurs
method of attack
Method of attack
  • Qualitative way adopted
  • Case study method was supposed to be the most tangible
  • Female leaders of university entrepreneurship clubs formed the population of the study
  • Sample comprised 4 female leaders and directors of university, entrepreneurship clubs from Lahore, Punjab
  • Data collection methods included observations, analysis of previous documents, interviews, and reflections upon activities and relations.
theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework
  • Islamic perspective taken as foundation stone

The empowerment and the impetus and grit of the women in Pakistan have been the result of the precedent and the Role Model of Prophet Muhammad’s (SAW) wife Khadija (RA).

“The most important point to mention is that there is nothing in the Qur’an or in the Hadith which prevents women from working outside the home

theoretical framework contd
Theoretical Framework contd.
  • In fact the Qur’an extols the leadership of Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba for her capacity to fulfill the requirements of the office, for her political skills, the purity of her faith and her independent judgement (Al Naml, 27:23-44).
theoretical framework1
Theoretical Framework

Hadith as the another footing of women entrepreneurship

  • There is another hadith which states that 9/10 of our sustenance comes from business. For those who are able and are competent, Islamic society should encourage them to become entrepreneurs or get involved with other types of business activities.” (Hibri, 1982; Roomi, 2009)
theoretical framework2
Theoretical Framework

Social theories as a support to the concept of women entrepreneurship

  • A correct interpretation of the perceptions of Islamic values have played a role in allowing spatial mobility, access to transport, and interaction with male members at school, college, university and office level, has helped them grow confident and to venture in business (Roomi: 2009)
theoretical framework3
Theoretical Framework
  • Accepted statements of different scholars;
  • Mwasalwiba (2010) argues that impact assessment in entrepreneurship education is currently receiving increasing attention from various stakeholders, i.e. donors, policy-makers, students and scholars. Effectiveness of entrepreneurial education can be measured in several ways. Barbosa, Kickuland Smith (2008)
theoretical framework4
Theoretical Framework
  • Psychological theory of self efficacy;
  • entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents like attitudes, self-efficacy or perceptions of control, applies theory of planned behaviour,
  • findings of Fayolle and Degeorge (2006) indicate that although effectiveness can be measured also by the number of ventures created or by number of jobs generated it is not the most appropriate way as the simplest or most obvious indicators often fail.
review of related literature
Review of related literature

Impact of education on female entrepreneurs?

  • Weeks (2007) opines that female- led business can play a major role for the economy development.
  • US statistics reveals that over the last twenty years female self employment have been developed at a rate of near twice to one of other business and have made further vital effect on employment statistics.(Centre for Women’s Business Research, 2007).
  • Allen, Langowitz, Elam and Dean (2007) proved impact of women entrepreneurship on economic growth as they distribute the benefits achieved through entrepreneurial activity with members of their family and the wider group of people. (Henry and Kennedy, 2003).
review of related literature contd
Review of related literature contd

Educational factors;

  • The women entrepreneurs well demonstrate a higher educational level than their male counterpart (Madsen et al, 2003).
  • Brush et al (1991) successful female entrepreneurs have a higher standard of education,
  • Brush et al (1991) recognized the value of subject selection in improving the success of women new business creation.
  • Watkins et al (1984) supposed subject selection makes a distinction between the male and female entrepreneurs.
review of related literature contd1
Review of related literature contd
  • Menzieet al (2003) and Madsen et al (2003) recognized that females were less inclined to study science and computer subjects and were more likely to major in social sciences.
  • Women entrepreneurs were motivated to study non practical subjects with only a marginal holding degrees in business, sciences or technical discipline (McCellandet al, 2005).
  • Watkins et al (1984) and McCellandet al (2005) approximately nothing that has been researched in the educational system per se by the female student was directly linked to the type of business they eventually started.
review of related literature contd2
Review of related literature contd
  • female commonly start businesses in what are seen as traditional women areas such as health, education. (Buttneret al, 1997; Fitzsimons et al, 2004; Still et al, 2006).
  • Rae and Carswell (2000), entrepreneurial learning is taken by women as “a dynamic process of awareness, reflection, association and application that involves transforming experience and knowledge into functional learning outcomes” Rae (2006) (p. 42) ,”
  • entrepreneurial learning is “ a dynamic and constant process of acquiring, assimilating, and organizing the new information and knowledge with pre-existing structures” (Cope, 2005; Harrison & Leitch, 2005; Minniti & Bygrave, 2001; Rae & Carswell, 2000).
review of related literature contd3
Review of related literature contd
  • Self efficacy;
  • Lack of self efficacy is main issue for women to run a new business, Richards (2005), (Chaudhury & Endris, 2005). Brindlay supported deficiency of self efficacy showed a bad impact on female starting their business.
  • Another author believed deficiency in self efficacy as female based, may impact basic venture creation performance for example reaching financing institution (Filden & Dawey, 2004).
  • According to Williams deficiency of self efficacy encourage to look for proper training.
review of related literature contd4
Review of related literature contd

Women leadership styles

  • (Eagly et al., 2003; Eagly & Carli, 2003). Brush and Hisrich (1991) propose women entrepreneurs who discover to successfully run their business by line up assistance from others and attain entrepreneurship sensation.
  • Leadership styles differ between male and (Eagly et al., 2003; Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001; Eagly & Carli, 2003).
  • Female exhibit an extra participatory style of leadership as contrast to the task oriented style of their male counterpart (Brush, 1992; Chaganti, 1986).
analysis discussion and suggestions
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;

Participation in entrepreneurship education and activities increase entrepreneurial skill and self-efficacy among students

  • Gender equity is being addressed in terms of economy through education
  • Women Entrepreneurship Education instills basic skills of initiative, leadership, self-confidence and opportunity seeking, in female to foster and nurture a renewed inspirit of Entrepreneurship.
  • Women Entrepreneurship in academia promotes the concept of education for better life
analysis discussion and suggestions1
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
  • Reliance of private sector universities is more on arranging co-academic activities for developing;
    • Open mind
    • Decisiveness
    • Exercise of choice
    • Socialization
    • Generate, share, mature and sell the ideas
analysis discussion and suggestions2
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
  • Pakistani universities are offering;
    • Need and market based curricula
    • Switching over from agrarian schedule, to industrial agenda for an age of individual enterprise;
    • Knowledge strengthened to mint money
    • Re-cycle process for ISO coincidence
    • Curricula economy based; for an age of discontinuity and rapid change.”
analysis discussion and suggestions3
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
  • The academic, co-academic, focused on creativity, innovation hence a changed style of thinking
  • Academics fashioned for open ideas encouraging risks taking
  • Valuing developing contacts and networks for implementation of ideas and mobilization of resources
analysis discussion and suggestions4
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions
  • Participation to co-curricular activities have made the women more courageous in undertaking self employing assignments not only to support themselves but for social status as well
analysis discussion and suggestions5
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
  • entrepreneurship education makes the women more decisive and firm leaders as innovators and confident.
suggestions
Suggestions
  • Showcasing of theoretical ideas
  • Trainings in ideas selling
  • Encouragement in expo
  • Inter provincial contingent exchanges
  • Crash programs for indigenous products and their show casing
  • Interactive sessions with successful entrepreneurs
  • Inter universities business plan competition