MEC1 LESSON 109
WHICH / WHOM • The relative pronoun WHICH is used to refer to animals and things. • I don’t like perfume which is too sweet. • Susan likes dogs which are small. • WHICH can be replaced by THAT in the sentences above.
I like to read books that are based on real facts. ATTENTION!!! But can we always replace WHICH?1) I like to read books which are based on real facts. 2) Frank likes martial arts, which is an excellent physical exercise. In the first example, WHICH can be replaced by THAT. The WHICH-part of the sentence helps us identify the books the speaker is talking about. NOT POSSIBLE. In the second example, the WHICH-part of the sentence gives some extra information about martial arts. This information could be omitted. It is always preceded by a comma in writing. WHICH cannot be replaced here.
WHOM • The relative pronoun WHOM, like WHO, always refers to PEOPLE. In formal English, WHOM can be used instead of WHO when the relative pronoun is not followed immediately by a verb. ___________________________________________________
Some examples: • Mrs. Fanelli wants her children to marry women who are Italian. • Silvia hired a person who/whom she most identified herself with. In the first sentence, WHO is followed by a verb. WHOM cannot be used. In the second sentence, WHO is followed by a personal pronoun. WHOM can be used.
Is it possible to use WHO here? • Simon is the guy about WHOM the boss was telling us. In this case, we cannot use WHO. There is a preposition just before it. However, in spoken English, we usually put the preposition after the verb and WHO or THAT instead. • Simon is the guy WHO/THAT the boss was telling us about.
Let’s practice!!! WHO/THAT • Sarah is the student _____________ got the highest score. • Jerry is the guy _____________ loves Sue. • The film ____________ I saw yesterday was really boring. • Mr. Hill is the man __________________ I would like to talk to. • The house, ____________ I sold yesterday, is just next to that one. • Rita, _________ is my Mom’s friend, is living in Curitiba now. • For ________ the bells tolls. WHO/THAT WHICH/THAT WHO/WHOM/THAT WHICH WHO/THAT WHOM
OUGHT TO • It is used when giving advice. It has the same meaning as SHOULD. • It is used when one feels something is the right thing to do. • It is used when wants to express what the speaker thinks is probable.
The NEGATIVE of OUGHT TO is: OUGHT NOT TO e.g.: She ought NOT to do that. The form OUGHTN’T is rarely used, but it can be found in British English. e.g.: She OUTGHTN’T to do that.
The INTERROGATIVE is rarely used too. e.g.: OUGHT I TO go now? OUGHT he TO study for this test? However, these forms sound more natural: Do you think I should/ought to go now? Do you think he should/ought to study for this test?
OUGHT TO / MUST • MUST is used to express strong OBLIGATION. I MUST go now or I will be late for work. • OUGHT TO can be used to express STRONG PROBABILITY. She OUGHT TO BE late today. She has millions of things to do at work.
Let’s practice! OUGHT TO WRITE OUGHT SHE TO DO OUGHT NOT TO GO OUGHT TO ARRIVE He _________________ to his mother. (write) What _________________ with these books? (she/do) You __________________ tonight. You are sick. (not/go out) Mr. Sardella ___________________ soon. He left home hours ago. (arrive) All going well, Bob ________________________ at the end of the semester. (graduate) Sergio is the most experienced and strongest. He _________________ the champion in the Jiu jitsu competition again. (be) OUGHT TO GRADUATE OUGHT TO BE
PASSIVE VOICEPRESENT CONTINUOUS/PAST CONTINUOUS An exam is beingheld in that classroom. Patients were beingassisted by the doctors yesterday. TO BE + PRINCIPAL VERB IN THE PAST PARTICIPLE IN THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR PAST CONTINUOUS
REWRITE THESE SENTENCES: • The students are doing the exam. • They were making some sandwiches. • The boys were playing soccer. • They were fixing the tunnel when the accident happened. THE EXAM IS BEING DONE BY THE STUDENTS. SOME SANDWICHES WERE BEING MADE. SOCCER WAS BEING PLAYED BY THE BOYS. THE TUNNEL WAS BEING FIXED WHEN THE ACCIDENT HAPPENED.
THE ENVIRONMENT OUGHT NOT TO BE DESTROYED. • Nobody ought to destroy the environment. • They are painting a building in front of CCAA. • Edward is writing a new book. • Were you really washing the dishes when the phone rang? A BUILDING IN FRONT OF CCAA IS BEING PAINTED. A NEW BOOK IS BEING WRITTEN BY EDWARD. WERE THE DISHES REALLY BEING WASHED WHEN THE PHONE RANG?