European shifts from conflict. Protestant Reformation Scientific Revolution. Warfare was nearly constant in Europe during the early Modern Era. List the wars and examine their economic and human costs. Why were these wars fought and what was the outcome and significance in European history? .
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Warfare was nearly constant in Europe during the early Modern Era. List the wars and examine their economic and human costs. Why were these wars fought and what was the outcome and significance in European history?
How did the European states “pay the piper”? Were politics and warfare related to European economies and economic development from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century?
A statement by the French scholar Loys Le Roy regarding the 1700s was that “he was living at a turning point in world history.” Was Le Roy correct?
Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire failed to unify Europe while the European royal monarchies centralized their state control in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
There were disparities among the various social classes in European urban society between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Who were the bourgeoisie? What conditions did the poorer classes endure?
How can one explain the witch-hunts that swept through Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Who were the victims? Why were so many of the accused women?
Describe the intellectual revolution of the Scientific Revolution. Why did it begin? Who were some of the notable minds responsible for this revolution? Was there widespread acceptance of their ideas?
How did the basic tenets of Lutheranism and Calvinism differ from those of Catholicism? What was the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation?