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Career Development Models

Career Development Models

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Career Development Models

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  1. Career Development Models July 2010

  2. Mentoring across career lifecycle Eby (2010) Handbook

  3. Mentoring Phases Kram (1983)

  4. Formal vs. Informal Psychosocial support Career development Formal Matches often made by 3rd parties*1 Use regulative & contractual tactics to communicate*2 More dysfunctional mentoring reported*4 Less psychosocial support/role modeling*3 Last btwn 6 months and a year*3 Obligation to protégé b/c of program*3 Informal Initiated on basis of perceived similarity, identification, interpersonal comfort, perceived competence*1 Use direct & extra-contractual tactics to communicate*2 Last btwn 3 & 6 years*3 Greater change for frequency for interaction*3 Obligation to protégé for personal reasons*3

  5. Mentoring vs… Contrasted to Others LMX: have different correlates*1 Coaching: more specific (mentoring more developmental and general), less comprehensive, short-term, goal setting & feedback*2, transactional*3, explicit*3, monetary*3, no sponsorship or authority Therapy*3: one way, neutral therapist, licensed, confidentiality Transformational leadership: more performance-oriented, transform people for current job, style not role* Compared to Others LMX: not distinguished by subordinates*1 Developmental exchanges btwn 2 or more people*2 Participant demographics*2 Interaction characteristics*2 Organizational distance/direction*2 Purpose of interaction*2 Degree of structure*2 Behaviors exhibited*2

  6. Peer Mentoring Kram & Isabella (1985)

  7. Going beyond traditional mentoring

  8. Mentoring vs. No Mentoring Chao (1997)

  9. Comparing mentoring & others Eby (2010) Handbook

  10. Executive Coaching Specific goals*1 Solicit feedback*1 Improved performance*1 Increased self-awareness*2 Increased self-confidence*2 Executive Coaching Goal-focused one-on-one learning for executives *1 Organizational outcomes

  11. Who mentors and who gets selected? Eby (2010) Handbook

  12. Mentoring functions provided Eby (2010) Handbook

  13. Positives Higher salaries (.12) (more for those w/ history of male mentors*2 Number of promotions, job/career satisfaction*4 Intention to stay (.06) Expectation for advancement (.26) Performance (.06) Help coping with stress*1 Interpersonal relations (.19) Motivation (.12) OCBs (.26) Socialization*1 Satisfaction w/ mentoring relationship*3 Protégé's met expectations  mentor relationship effectiveness*5 Expatriate socialization  job satisfaction/intent to finish assignment*6 Protégé learning*7 Protégés’ Outcomes Receipt of Mentoring by Protégés Negatives Mismatched values, personalities, work styles Mentor neglect Mentor manipulation Job satisfaction Reactions to mentoring Strain Turnover intentions Perceptions of relational problems Eby (2010) Handbook

  14. Mentors’ Outcomes Positives Perception of career success Salary Promotion rates Personal satisfaction Generativity Work attitudes Recognition by others for mentoring Mentor learning*1 Pros/Cons of Mentoring for Mentors Negatives Protégé performance problems Interpersonal problems Destructive relational patterns Attitudinal, relational, psychological issues Eby (2010) Handbook

  15. Organizational Benefits Turnover Job Performance Organizational commitment Job satisfaction High quality recruitment Organizational Mentoring Benefits Organizational outcomes Eby (2010) Handbook

  16. Dysfunctional Mentoring (distinct from positive mentoring)*1 Antecedents Mentor Perspective Outcomes of Dysfunctionality Relationship arranged formally Perceived costs of mentoring > benefits Gender (males ingratiate more) Separation phase of mentoring Destructive Relational Problems*1 Breaching mentor trust Protégé exploitive behavior Jealousy/competitiveness Sabotage Harassment Perceived impact on relationship*1 Typicality*1 Interpersonal Problems*1 Protégé Conflict (more by males)*2 Protégé Impression management Protégé Submissiveness Relationship deterioration Relationship Satisfaction Performance Problems*1 Below performance expectations Unwillingness to learn Career Development(-)*1 Psychosocial support(-)*1 Exit relationship*1 Time invested in mentorship*1 Interpersonal comfort*1 Psychological reactions*3 Emotional attachment*3 Protégé learning*3 Protégé Perspective Mismatch within Dyad (differences in values/personality) Distancing behavior (neglectful/exclusionary behavior) Manipulative behavior (self-centered behaviors) Lack of mentor experience (interpersonal/technical expertise) General dysfunctionality (negative attitude towards org by mentor)

  17. E-mentoring Outcomes Positives Flexible (any time, any place) Writing skills Greater access to mentors Reduced costs*3 Equalization of status*3 Record of interactions*3 Decreased emphasis on demographics*3 Post-mentoring self-efficacy Interactivity+*1 Higher quality diverse relationships Gender similarity*2  Interpersonal comfort E-mentoring Negatives Less psychosocial*1 Less career development*1 Less protégé self-efficacy (for male mentors)*1 Less commitment to relationship by mentors / protégés Harder to establish trusting, close relationships Confidentiality concerns Likelihood of miscommunication*3 Computer malfunctions*3 Eby (2010) Handbook

  18. Increasing High Quality Mentoring Protégé *Ability *Motivation *Commitment *Interpersonal Skills *Internal locus of control, high self-monitoring, low neuroticism (leads to initiation of mentoring)*4 Gender (females get greater psycho)*6 *Perceived similarity (more liking, satisfaction, contact)*7 *Perceived match (for formal programs)*8 Mentor *Pro-activity + *Openness to Experience (predicts both)+*1 *Helpfulness (career not psychosocial)+*5 *Other-oriented empathy (psychosocial not career)+*5 *Gender (males provide > CD, females more psycho)*6 *Previous mentoring experience*6 *Humble transformational leaders*9 Other *Amount of contact time+*2 Mentor*protégé gender (predicts psychosocial)*1 *Liking+*2 *Deep-level similarity+*2 *High learning goal oriented dyad*3 *Being in the same department*8 Organizational *Supportive climate *Decentralization *Team-oriented approach to work *Formal mentoring programs w/ quality training *Have mentors volunteer *Careful of matching strategy *Consider perceived similarity more than actual *Establish expectations in formal mentoring program Informal Mentoring Mentoring Functions Psychosocial Support Career Development Eby (2010) Handbook

  19. Effect of Unemployment *Correlation with unemployment

  20. Saks 2005 The Job Search Process Bio Variables Gender (M>W)*7 Age Education Race Tenure (Shorter) Job search behaviors*2 Job information sources Job search intensity Job search effort (preparatory vs. active) Assertive job-seeking behavior Networking intensity Career planning*3 Individual Differences (more predictive for new entrants) Self-esteem Conscientiousness*5 Extraversion*5 Job search self-efficacy*4 Locus of control*7 Cognitive Ability Work centrality Learning goal orientation*2 Leadership experience*2 Networking comfort*8 Employment outcomes Employment status Person-job fit Person-organization fit Job search outcomes Job interviews Job offers Speed of employment Goals Job search goals Employment goals Other outcome predictors Self-presentation skills Job choice decision making Employment quality Job satisfaction Organizational commitment Intention to quit Turnover Situational variables (more predictive for job losers) Financial need/hardship Job seeking social support*4 Labor market Subjective norms *6 Psychological Well-Being

  21. Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities *Research support types, structure, validity of instruments used to measure, & cross-cultural validity. *Each individual’s highest 3 letters are used in assessment & intervention. Realistic Investigative Conventional Artistic Enterprising Social Fit Indices Examined Congruence: fit btwn personality & current work environment. Consistency: harmony btwn distances of letters. Differentiation: distinctiveness of personality profile. Identity: degree to which person is aware of goals, interests & talents (related to the above 3) Realistic: mechanical ability, not too many social skills Investigative: mathematical/scientific ability, not too much leadership skills Artistic: artistic abilities, often no clerical skills Social: social skills/talents often no mechanical/scientific ability Enterprising: leadership & speaking abilities, but often no scientific ability Conventional: clerical/arithmetic ability but often no artistic Spokane & Cruz-Guet, 2005

  22. The Job Search Process Use of informal sources: no change