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Academic Misconduct in Higher Education Today. David Cordes Department of Computer Science University of Alabama. Workshop Overview. Goal: Better understanding of the current situation Information on relevant resources Format: Interactive Working groups, not a lecture. Workshop Outline.

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academic misconduct in higher education today

Academic Misconduct in Higher Education Today

David Cordes

Department of Computer Science

University of Alabama

workshop overview
Workshop Overview
  • Goal:
    • Better understanding of the current situation
    • Information on relevant resources
  • Format:
    • Interactive
    • Working groups, not a lecture

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

workshop outline
Workshop Outline
  • Problem awareness [10 min]
  • Introductions [10 min]
  • Establish some basic guidelines
    • What is cheating? [15 min]
  • Group Task #1: Best Practices
    • Factors that motivate/reduce cheating [30 min]
  • Group Task #2:
    • Academic Honor Codes and cheating [30 min]
  • Tools to address misconduct
    • Plagiarism tools [15 min]

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

awareness and appreciation
Awareness and Appreciation
  • Interactive Quiz

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

awareness and appreciation answers
One study showed 75% of students today admitted to serious cheating on exams, compared to 39% in 1963

Cheating percentages: Business 87%, Engineering 74%, Sciences 67%, Humanities 63%

Students tend to cheat more as they progress through the curriculum from first-year to senior

Males used to cheat more, females catching up

Numerous researchers have confirmed the Greek link to cheating

One study found that 56% of a graduating engineering class admitted to cheating

80% of students have witnessed an incident of cheating and not reported it

Students indicate they cheated on approximately 8.6% of the homework assignments in a given semester/term

Students felt their friends cheated twice as much as they did. 95% of the students felt their friends were more likely to cheat

90% of students believe that cheaters are either not caught or not appropriately disciplined

Awareness and Appreciation Answers

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

introductions
Please give:

Name

Institution

Discipline

One result that surprised you from the quiz

Attendees

Jim Morgan, Civil, TAMU, jim-morgan@tamu.edu

Joseph Shaeiwitz, Chemical, West Virginia, jashaeiwitz@mail.wvu.edu

Richard Frueler, FEH Coordinator & Aerospace, Ohio State, rick.freuler@osu.edu

Introductions

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

working definition what is cheating
Working definition: What is cheating?
  • The standard faculty answer to this question is:
    • I’ll know it when I see it
  • Process:
    • Think (by yourself) for 30 seconds
    • Share your results with a partner
    • Develop a concise definition of cheating

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

what is cheating definitions
What is cheating? (definitions)
  • Overtly disobeying the rules set forth in an assignment
  • Representing someone else’s work as you own
  • Giving or receiving unauthorized help on an assignment

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

institutional definitions of cheating
Institutional definitions of cheating
  • U.Washington: You are guilty of cheating whenever you present as your own work something that you did not do. You are also guilty of cheating if you help someone else to cheat.
  • Ohio State: any activity that tends to compromise the academic integrity of the University, or subvert the educational process.
  • West Point Honor Code: A Cadet will not lie, cheat or steal, nor tolerate those who do.

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

group task 1 best practices for dealing with misconduct
Group Task #1Best Practices for dealing with misconduct
  • Goal:
    • Identify best instructor practices for reducing or eliminating cheating from an engineering classroom
  • Process:
    • Background information
    • Break into groups of three to five people
      • Identify best practices
      • Identify “worst” practices
    • Report out (by each group)

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

group task 1 best practices for dealing with misconduct1
Background Information

Top five scenarios students felt constituted cheating

Someone taking an exam for you

Changing an answer on an already graded exam

Bringing an illegal cheat sheet to an exam

Looking at another person’s exam

Passing an answer to another student during an exam

Students would be less likely to cheat if their instructor wrote fair exams

Process, in your group:

Identify best practices for dealing with misconduct

Identify worst practices for dealing with misconduct

Group Task #1Best Practices for dealing with misconduct

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

group reports best worst practices to eliminate cheating
Group Reports:Best/worst practices to eliminate cheating
  • Best: different versions of exams, different ordering of questions
  • Best: Individual assignments when possible
  • Best: Discussing issues that arise (w.r.t. cheating) as you go through the course
  • Best: Very strict consequences
  • Best: Have the needed institutional support
  • Best: Won’t cheat if perceived as valuable information (if students believe they don’t need to know the material, they approach learning it differently)
  • Hard to make sure students always handle the transition between group assignments and individual assignments properly
  • Worst: permanent seating charts
  • Worst: offending the students integrity (such as staying in the room at an institution with a strict, student-enforced academic honesty policy)
  • Worst: inconsistent grading policies

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

interesting observations
Student Opinion #1On an exam, is it cheating if a student

Copies from another student (97% Yes)

Copies from a cheat sheet (92% Yes)

Uses formulas or notes on a calculator or PDA(72% Yes)

Asks questions of another student who has already taken the exam (24% Yes)

Student Opinion #2Is it cheating if a student

Copies another student’s homework when it is not permitted (72% Yes)

Submits a copy of an old assignment from a previous term (49% Yes)

Submits a copy of an old lab report from a previous term (59% Yes)

Copies a passage out of the text for a homework assignment (18% Yes)

Interesting Observations

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

group task 2 academic honor codes and misconduct
Group Task #2Academic Honor Codes and Misconduct
  • Goal:
    • Develop the essential components of an academic misconduct policies that can be utilized within your institution
  • Process:
    • Background information
    • Break into groups of three to five people
      • Construct your own “academic misconduct code”
    • Report out (by each group)

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

group task 2 academic honor codes and misconduct1
Background Information

Most critical factor in honor code success is student understanding

Honor codes exclusively managed by students are more effective

35% of students feel that honor codes are well understood at their institution

50% of students believe the faculty at their institution enforce academic honor code policies

Process

Break into groups

Round-robin: does your institution have an honor code? Can you easily explain it to the group?

Construct your own “honor code”

Group Task #2Academic Honor Codes and Misconduct

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

group reports academic honor codes
Group Reports:Academic Honor Codes
  • Things to consider:
    • Does not place an unreasonable burden on the faculty members
    • Cheating is not a Boolean (yes or no) issue. There are shades of gray, and “one penalty fits all” does not work
    • Instructor must have the flexibility to handle unique situations
    • Instructor must have access to relevant information regarding a student’s past academic record

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

tools to assist in detection
Tools to assist in detection
  • Over 50% of students admit to plagiarizing material from the Internet
  • Tools that help detect mis-conduct
    • Textual document plagiarism
      • www.turnitin.com (plagiarism.org)
      • Costs real money ($500 to $1000 per year)
    • MOSS (Measures Of Software Similarity)
      • Programming languages (C, C++, Java, …)
      • Free (Alan Aiken, CS, Berkeley)

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona

references
References
  • Carpenter, Harding, Montgomery, Steneck, “PACES – A study on academic integrity among engineering undergraduates (preliminary conclusion),” 2002 ASEE Annual Conference
  • Harding, Carpenter, Montgomery, Steneck, “A comparison of the role of academic dishonesty policies of several colleges on the cheating behavior of engineering and pre-engineering students,” 32nd ASEE/IEEE FIE Conference
  • Harding, “Cheating: student attitudes and practical approaches to dealing with it,” 30th ASEE/IEEE FIE Conference
  • Clough, “Plagiarism in natural and programming languages: an overview of current tools and technologies”
  • Morgan, Foster, “Student Cheating: an ethical dilemma,” 1992 FIE Conference
  • Harding, Carpenter, Montgomery, Steneck, “The current state of research on academic dishonesty among engineering students,” 31st ASEE/IEEE FIE Conference
  • Hinman, “Academic Integrity and the World Wide Web,” Computers and Society, March 2002
  • Sheard, Dick, Markham, Macdonald, Walsh, “Cheating and Plagiarism: perceptions and practices of first year IT students”

March 16th-18th, 2003 Share the Future IVTempe, Arizona