Can you find 7 Hearts in this picture here? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Can you find 7 Hearts in this picture here?

  2. Next Geog Elect Class on Thursday • Bring protractor • Bring calculator • Bring string

  3. Map Reading & Basic Techniques! Read and interpret topographical maps

  4. Mt Merapi • Mt Merapi is an active volcano in Indonesia that has erupted many times in the past. In 2006, it erupted again, affecting the lives of the thousands of people who live around it.

  5. You can get info on Mt. Merapi from satellite images…

  6. Satellite Image of Mount Merapi

  7. Satellite Image of Mount Merapi

  8. You can get info on Mt. Merapi from photographs

  9. Mt. Merapi Volcanic Eruption in May 2007

  10. Large amounts of volcanic ash covered vehicles, making visibility very poor.

  11. Farming in fertile volcanic ash near Mt. Merapi

  12. From Maps…

  13. What other ways can we get more information about Mt Merapi’s height or geographical location?

  14. Through a topographical map!

  15. Understanding our environment • Read and interpret physical and human features on topographical maps. • Basic techniques of interpreting and evaluating geographical data, which may be represented in various forms, such as graphs, photographs and satellite maps.

  16. Topo Maps provide you with info such as height, distance, gradient...

  17. Looking at the Environment through Maps Make sure you are familiar with the following components of map-reading Reading Topographical maps • Map Symbols (Legend) • Grid References • Compass Points • Scales (Large Scale/ Small Scale) 5. Reading Contour Lines

  18. What do all the lines and symbols mean?

  19. Reading Topographical mapsMap Symbols (Legend)

  20. Map Symbols (Legend)

  21. How do I find out where a particular landform is found on the map? How do I specify the location of a physical or human feature?

  22. How to tell my friend how to get to the Post Office?

  23. Northing and Easting 72 73 74 75 76 Northings are horizontal grid lines where their numbers increase from south to north. 85 84 83 Eastings are vertical grid lines that increase from west to east.

  24. How do I determine the exact location of a place using northings and eastings? • 4 Figure Grid Reference • 6 Figure Grid Reference

  25. To find the four figure grid reference, draw a “L” around the square

  26. Which direction first?

  27. Always take the northing or easting with the smaller value! 29 28 42 41

  28. North to South Grid Lines: Eastings East to West Grid Lines: Northings Reading Topographical mapsGrid References Four Figure Grid Reference: 1521

  29. Six figure grid references • 180443 • 184441 • 181447 • 186448 • 188445

  30. North to South Grid Lines: Eastings East to West Grid Lines: Northings Reading Topographical mapsGrid References Six Figure Grid Reference: 155217

  31. Steps to deriving at the grid references • Locate the grid square where the feature is found. • Read the easting (vertical line) on the left of the grid square. • Read the northing (horizontal line) on the bottom of the grid square. • The four-figure grid reference consists of both the easting and the northing. To derive at the six-figure grid references, • Divide the grid square into ten equal parts along the easting and northing, and number them from 0 to 9. • Estimate how far the centre of the feature is from the easting and the northing, using the scale in tenths. • The six-figure grid reference consists of both the easting and the northing and an estimation of how far the feature is from the easting and the northing based on a scale of 0 to 10.

  32. How to get to that place I want to go to on the map? Which direction should I go?

  33. Reading Topographical mapsCompass Points N North Point

  34. Cardinal Points 12 Intermediate Points • North East (NE) • North West (NW) • South East (SE) • South West (SW) • North-North-East (NNE) • East-North-East (ENE) • East-South-East (ESE) • South-South-East (SSE) • South-South-West (SSW) • West-South-West (WSW) • West-North-West (WNW) • North-North-West (NNW) North (N) South (S) East (E) West (W)

  35. North NNE NNW NW NE ENE WNW West East WSW ESE SW SE SSE SSW South

  36. Determining Directions • Bearings are compass directions, which are used to obtain the precise directions of one place or feature with another. • They are measured in degrees in a clockwise direction from the north.

  37. How to Determine Directions using Bearings? • To measure the bearing of B from A, draw a straight line joining the two points. • Draw a line parallel to the Grid North through A. • Place the centre of the protractor over A, with the 0° on the protractor pointing to the North. • Read the bearing off the protractor where the line AB cuts the outer edge of the protractor. A 131° B N

  38. Let’s Practice how to read bearings A A B C N N The bearing of C from A is 180° + 50° = 230° The bearing of B from A is 100°

  39. What happens if I want to drive or take a bus to my destination? How do I find out what is the distance between the two points? So that I can estimate how much time I need to get there?

  40. Measuring distances • Ruler • Pen • String • Piece of paper

  41. Measuring distances • Scale: ratio of a distance on a map to the actual distance on the Earth’s surface.

  42. Depending on the area of focus, you can choose to zoom on the area at various scales

  43. Representing a Scale on a map • As a statement in words • For example, 1 centimetre represents 1 kilometre. • This means that 1 centimetre on a map represents 1 kilometre on the Earth’s surface. • Therefore, if the distance of a road measured on a map is 9 centimetres, the actual distance of the road is 9 kilometres.

  44. Representing a Scale on a map 2) As a representative fraction (R.F.) • This is expressed as a ratio or fraction, for example, 1:25 000 or 1/ 25 000 may mean 1 milimetre represents 25 000 milimetres or 1 centimetre represents 25 000 centimetres and so on. • Distances can be easily calculated using the R.F. For example, if the distance of a HDB flat from a bus stop is 2 centimetres on a map (1 centimetre represents 25 000 centimetres), then the actual distance is = 2 X 25 000 centimetres = 50 000 centimetres or 0.5 kilometres

  45. Representing a Scale on a map 3)As a line or linear scale • A linear scale consists of a line that is divided into units and sub-units such that measurements can be read off easily and accurately. • A linear scale can be easily converted into a scale using a statement or a R.F. • For example, in the diagram below, a distance of 1 kilometre on the linear scale measures 2 centimetres. This means that 2 centimetres represent 1 kilometres or 1 centimetre represents 0.5 kilometres. Metres 1000 0 1 Metres 1000 0 1 2 3 kilometres 2 3 kilometres A linear scale A linear scale

  46. B) Reading Topographical maps 4)Scales (Large Scale/ Small Scale)

  47. 4)Scales (Large Scale/ Small Scale)