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Thinking Outside the Box: The Use of Sleep Pods for Strategic Naps for Fatigue Management – Does it Work?. Conference Session: SES022 2012 ACGME Annual Education Conference Nancy Piro, PhD Program Manager/Education Specialist and Ann Dohn, MA, DIO Department of Graduate Medical Education

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slide1

Thinking Outside the Box: The Use of Sleep Pods for Strategic Naps for Fatigue Management – Does it Work?

Conference Session: SES022

2012 ACGME Annual Education Conference

Nancy Piro, PhD

Program Manager/Education Specialist

and Ann Dohn, MA, DIO

Department of Graduate Medical Education

Stanford Hospital & Clinics

conflict of interest
Conflict of Interest
  • No conflicts of interest to report
session objectives
Session Objectives

At the end of this session, participants will be able to have:

  • an increased awareness of the research on the effectiveness of naps in resident training programs
  • an increased understanding of the effectiveness of innovative solutions such as sleep pods to mitigate resident and fellow fatigue
  • A better understanding of how to (and how not to) operationalize a nap and fatigue management strategy in academic GME settings
setting the stage history
Setting the Stage - History
  • Libby Zion case
  • July 2003 ACGME Duty Hours Requirements
  • IOM Report
  • Education for faculty and residents on “The Effects of Fatigue & Fatigue Mitigation”
  • July 2011 New ACGME Duty Hour Requirements
  • Strategic Napping
libby zion case law
Libby Zion Case/Law
  • The Libby Zion law is a regulation that limits the amount of resident physicians work in New York State hospitals to roughly 80 hours per week.
  • The law was named after Libby Zion who died at the age of 18 under the care of what her father believed to be overworked resident physicians and intern physicians.
  • In July 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) adopted similar regulations for all accredited medical training institutions in the United States.
libby zion case law 2
Libby Zion Case/Law (2)
  • After the grand jury's indictment of the two residents, the New York State Health Commissioner David Axelrod decided to address the systemic problems in residencyby establishing a blue-ribbon panelof experts headed by Bertrand M. Bell, a primary care physician at the Albert Einstein College of Medicinein the Bronx.
  • Bell was well known for his critical stance regarding the lack of supervision of physicians-in-training.
  • The committee evaluated the training and supervision of doctors in the state,and developed a series of recommendations that addressed several patient care issues, including restraint usage, medication systems, and resident work hours.
libby zion case law 3
Libby Zion Case/Law (3)
  • In 1989, New York state adopted the Bell Commission's recommendations that residents could not work more than 80 hours a week or more than 24 consecutive hours and that attending physicians needed to be physically present in the hospital at all times.
  • Hospitals instituted “night floats” to spare their colleagues, allowing residents to adhere to the new rules. Periodic follow-up audits have prompted the New York State Department of Health to crack down on violating hospitals.
    • Similar limits have since been adopted in numerous other states.
  • In July 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) adopted similar regulations for all accredited medical training institutions in the United States.
new acgme requirements effective july 1 2011
New ACGME Requirements Effective July 1, 2011

Alertness Management

VI.C.1. The program must:

a) educate all faculty members and residents to recognize the signs

of fatigue and sleep deprivation;

b) educate all faculty members and residents in fatigue mitigation

processes; and,

c) adopt fatigue mitigation processes to manage the potential

negative effects of fatigue on patient care and learning, including

naps and back-up call schedules.

VI.C.2. Each program must have a process to ensure continuity of patient care in

the event that a resident may be unable to perform his/her patient care

duties.

VI.C.3. The sponsoring institution must provide adequate sleep facilities and/or

safe transportation options for residents who may be too fatigued to safely

return home.

slide10

“Strategic napping, especially after 16 hours of continuous duty and between the hours

of 10:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m. is strongly suggested.”

traditional hospital fatigue mitigation strategies
Traditional Hospital Fatigue Mitigation Strategies

Gurneys

Chairs

Mattresses

Coffee

Call Rooms

Beds

Patio

Furniture

Floor

Futons

thinking outside the box
Thinking Outside the Box
  • Looked to Silicon Valley
  • Found “nap pods” being used at GOOGLE
  • Sent resident “spy” to scope out
  • DIO (born in Berkeley) said this is California---why not?
  • Did internet search – found lots of info
what does the research tell us
What Does the Research Tell Us?
  • Emergency Medicine Residents
  • Sleep Pods – SUNY/VA
problems with traditional approaches
Problems with Traditional Approaches
  • Limited Number of Call Rooms
  • Distance Between Clinical Areas and Call Rooms
  • Housekeeping constraints
looking outside medical settings for ideas
Looking Outside Medical Settings for Ideas

“Napping Gets a Nod at the Workplace”

J. Hoffman, 8/30/2010, Bloomberg Business Week

  • A growing number of companies are encouraging employees to nap at work—and boost their productivity
  • From Thomas Edison and Winston Churchill to Bill Clinton and George Costanza, the nap has had many famous champions.
looking outside medical settings for ideas1
Looking outside Medical Settings for Ideas
  • Ever since sleep scientist David Dinges helped found the modern science of napping in the early '80s at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, short periods of sleep have been shown to improve alertness, memory, motor skills, decision-making, and mood.
    • All while cutting down on stress, carelessness, and even heart disease.
looking outside medical settings for ideas2
Looking outside Medical Settings for Ideas
  • With Americans averaging fewer than seven hours of sleep per night—and around 20 percent suffering from sleepiness during the day, according to a recent Stanford University study—many companies have turned to naps in an attempt to stave off billions in lost productivity each year.
looking outside medical settings for ideas3
Looking outside Medical Settings for Ideas
  • Nike workers now have access to nap-friendly "quiet rooms" that can also be used for meditation.
  • Google, a forerunner in employee perks, has a number of nap pods scattered throughout its Mountain View CA campus.
stanford nap research
Stanford Nap Research
  • Objective: Examine whether a 40-minute nap opportunity at 3 AM can improve cognitive and psychomotor performance in physicians and nurses working 12-hour night shifts.

Rebecca Smith-Coggins, MD et al.” Improving Alertness and Performance in Emergency Department Physicians and Nurses: The Use of Planned Naps” (2006)

stanford nap research1
Stanford Nap Research
  • Methods: A randomized controlled trial of 49 physicians and nurses working 3 consecutive night shifts in an academic emergency department.
  • Subjects were randomized to a control group (no nap condition - NONE) or nap intervention group (40-minute nap opportunity at 3 AM NAP).

Rebecca Smith-Coggins, MD et al.” Improving Alertness and Performance in Emergency Department Physicians and Nurses: The Use of Planned Naps” (2006

main outcome measures
Main Outcome Measures
  • Psychomotor Vigilance Task
  • Probe Recall Memory Task
  • CathSim intravenous insertion virtual reality simulation
  • Profile of Mood States
    • Administered before (6:30 PM), during (4 AM), and after (7:30 AM) night shifts.

Rebecca Smith-Coggins, MD et al.” Improving Alertness and Performance in Emergency Department Physicians and Nurses: The Use of Planned Naps” (2006)

methodology
Methodology
  • A 40-minute driving simulation was administered at 8 AM and videotaped for behavioral signs of sleepiness and driving accuracy.
  • During the nap period, standard polysomnographic data were recorded.

Rebecca Smith-Coggins, MD et al.” Improving Alertness and Performance in Emergency Department Physicians and Nurses: The Use of Planned Naps” (2006)

results
Results
  • Polysomnographic data revealed that 90% of nap subjects were able to sleep for an average of 24.8 minutes (SD 11.1).
  • At 7:30 AM, the nap group had fewer performance lapses
    • reported more vigor
    • less fatigue
    • less sleepiness

Rebecca Smith-Coggins, MD et al.” Improving Alertness and Performance in Emergency Department Physicians and Nurses: The Use of Planned Naps” (2006)

results1
Results
  • At 7:30 AM, the nap group had fewer performance lapses
    • tended to more quickly complete the intravenous insertion
    • exhibited less dangerous driving and display fewer behavioral signs of sleepiness during the driving simulation.
  • Immediately after the nap (4 AM), the subjects scored more poorly on Probed Recall Memory

Rebecca Smith-Coggins, MD et al.” Improving Alertness and Performance in Emergency Department Physicians and Nurses: The Use of Planned Naps” (2006)

the effects of a mid day nap on the neuro cognitive performance of medical interns
The effects of a mid-day nap on the neuro-cognitive performance of medical interns
  • Methods: Twenty-nine 1st year medical residents were divided into a nap group of 18 participants and a control group of 11 participants.
  • Participants were connected to a portable monitoring device prior to their tour of duty so that the occurrence of rolling eye movements, attention failures, could be monitored.

Mohammad M. Amin, MD et al. (2011)

the effects of a mid day nap on the neuro cognitive performance of medical interns1
The effects of a mid-day nap on the neuro-cognitive performance of medical interns
  • At mid-day, both groups underwent cognitive testing with Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT II) and then were placed in a nap pod.
  • Participants in the intervention group were instructed to nap for up to 20 minutes while controls were prevented from napping.

Mohammad M. Amin, MD et al. (2011)

the effects of a mid day nap on the neuro cognitive performance of medical interns2
The effects of a mid-day nap on the neuro-cognitive performance of medical interns
  • The CPT II was repeated immediately following the 20-minute period and attention failures were recorded until the end of the tour of duty.
  • Mean outcome parameters were compared across both groups with ANOVA with effect of treatment and baseline covariate using SAS.

Mohammad M. Amin, MD et al. (2011)

the effects of a mid day nap on the neuro cognitive performance of medical interns3
The effects of a mid-day nap on the neuro-cognitive performance of medical interns
  • Conclusion: A mid-day nap can improve attention and cognitive function among first year medical residents.

Mohammad M. Amin, MD et al. (2011)

conclusions from the research
Conclusions from the Research
  • Naps DO mitigate fatigue and improve cognitive performance overall
how did we proceed
How Did We Proceed?
  • Brainstormed Possible Solutions with:
    • Sleep Experts
    • Program Directors
    • GMEC
    • Chief Residents
what did we decide
What Did We Decide?
  • Pilot nap pods to see if they would be a means to enhance strategic napping and mitigate fatigue
why did we choose nap pods
Why Did We Choose Nap Pods?
  • Could Be Located Almost Anywhere
  • Didn’t require linen changes – could be wiped down
  • Had Track Record in Industry and at the VA
pilot implementation
Pilot Implementation
  • Key Considerations:
    • Where do we locate them?
      • Call Quarters vs near the ICUs?
    • How Do We Market Them to the Residents and Fellows?
    • How Do We Encourage Attending/Faculty Support?
    • How Do We Evaluate Effectiveness?
implementation
Implementation
  • Installed two trial nap pods
    • Collaborated with a source of nap pods
      • One in the Call Quarters
      • One outside the ICU
  • Informed GMEC, Program Directors and Residents
  • Started Gathering Data of Usage
  • Planned for Survey of Resident Perceptions about the nap pods
data gathering
Data Gathering
  • Quantitative Data
  • Qualitative Data for Analysis
preliminary qualitative survey results
Preliminary Qualitative Survey Results
  • Pods don’t take the place of beds
  • Better awareness as to other factors e.g., noise, paging that impact sleep
    • noise in the hallway
    • quieter quarters for napping
takeaways from the data
Takeaways from The Data
  • ICU Pod is getting more use than the one in the Call Rooms
    • Most Used 12-4 AM
  • Pods don’t take the place of beds
  • Better awareness as to other factors e.g., noise, paging that impact sleep
what could we have improved on
What Could we Have Improved On?
  • Better Education
  • Better Marketing
  • More Champions
so are nap pods a successful mitigation strategy
So….Are Nap Pods A Successful Mitigation Strategy?
  • 10 months into the pilot . . .
    • Preliminary Findings
      • Pods do work
      • Pods do not take the place of beds
      • Pods do work better for mitigation during duty hours (especially between 4-6AM) than at the end of the duty period
      • Need to market to the residents and fellows
      • Need to empower Faculty Champions
    • Upcoming Meeting with Chief Residents