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-Tidal and Wave Energy-. Steven Martinez Matthew Notta Bradlee Burnham. -History of Tidal Energy-. 787: simple technique of a waterwheel by the Spanish, French, and British 1966: “La Rance” tidal power plant went in operation.

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Steven martinez matthew notta bradlee burnham

-Tidal and Wave Energy-

Steven Martinez

Matthew Notta

Bradlee Burnham


History of tidal energy
-History of Tidal Energy-

  • 787: simple technique of a waterwheel by the Spanish, French, and British

  • 1966: “La Rance” tidal power plant went in operation.

  • 2001: British Parliament states “the world can no longer neglect the massive potential of wave and tidal energy”

  • 2002-present: Large investments in research and prototypes spark proposals in Turkey, China, and United States; among others


History of wave energy
-History of Wave Energy-

  • 1799: First patent of a device designed to use ocean waves to generate power

  • 1910: First oscillating water column was built by Bochaux-Praceique to power his house

  • 1940s: Yoshio Masuda experimented with many concepts of wave power

  • 2004: Wave power was delivered to an electrical grid for the first time


Tidal stream generators
-Tidal Stream Generators-

  • Very close in concept to traditional windmills

  • Most popular prototype on the market

  • Prototype sites include Norway, England, and New York.

    • In 2007 8 prototype turbines where placed in the East River between Queens and Roosevelt Island.

      • It is the first major tidal power project in the USA

      • Powers 1/3 of a parking garage and a supermarket


Seagen
-SeaGen-

  • World’s first large scale commercial tidal stream generator.

  • First one was installed in the Strangford Narrows (Ireland)

  • Generates 1.2MW between 18-20 hours a day

  • Blades span 16 meters in diameter

  • http://www.energysavers. gov/renewable_energy/ocean/index.cfm/mytopic=50009


Barrage tidal power rance power station
-Barrage Tidal Power: Rance Power Station-

  • Located on Rance River, France

    • 750 meters long

    • 24 Turbines

    • Capacity of 240MW

    • Annual output of 600GWh

    • Supplies 0.012% of Frances power supply.

    • Opened 1966

  • http://www.energysavers. gov/renewable_energy/ocean/index.cfm/mytopic=50009


Calculations tidal stream generators
-Calculations: Tidal Stream Generators-

P = the power generated (in watts)

ξ = the turbine efficiency

ρ = the density of the water (seawater is 1025 kg/m³)

A = the sweep area of the turbine (in m²)

V = the velocity of the flow

*Power equation is based on the kinetic energy of the moving water*


Calculation barrage tidal power
-Calculation: Barrage Tidal Power-

  • E = energy

  • ρ = the density of the water (seawater is 1025 kg/m³)

  • A = horizontal area of the barrage basin

  • G = Gravity (9.81m/s2)

  • H = Vertical Tide Range

* The potential energy available from a barrage is dependent on * the volume of water.


Environmental impact
-Environmental Impact-

  • Mortality rates of fish swimming threw the turbine is around 15%

    • Sonic guidance to get fish to avoid the turbine

  • Placement of barrage turbines into estuaries can change entire ecosystems

    • Alters flow of saltwater possibly changing hydrology & salinity

    • Sediment movement also can effect the ecosystem


  • Comparison to wind energy
    -Comparison to Wind Energy-

    • Tidal Stream generators draw energy in the same basic way wind turbines do

    • Higher density of water allows a single generator to provide significantly more power

    • Water speeds of nearly 1/10 the speed of wind can provide the same energy output

    • Current in water is much more reliable then wind in the air.


    Economics of tidal power
    -Economics of Tidal Power-

    • The cost of building a Tidal Power plant can have a high capital cost.

    • UK: $15 Billion

      • 8000MW

  • Philippines: $3 Billion

    • 2200MW

  • Operating costs are low and usually come from maintenance


  • What you can do
    -What You Can Do-

    • In the Amazon helical turbine technology are being used to generate small scale electricity for rural communities.

    • rural residents are dispersed and cannot be reached economically by power lines from central generators.

    • The only decentralized options available to them now are: solar panels and diesel generation.

      Configuration:

    • The helical turbine rotates on a shaft with a pulley that runs an alternator by means of a belt.

    • The alternator charges batteries


    Amazon project
    -Amazon Project-

    (b) Pulley and belt

    (c) Automotive alternator

    (a) 6-blade helical turbine

    www.globalcoral.org/UNCSD%20SUMMARY.ppt


    Amazon project1
    -Amazon Project-

    • Energy production: 120 A-h/day

    • 8 solar panels (75 Wp), installed: US$ 5690

    • Tide-Energy generating station: US$ 2800

    • Numbers on: Annual operating costs (120 A-h/day)*

      • 1000 VA diesel generator: US$ 1397

      • Tide-Energy generating station: US$ 824

        * Includes fuel, labor, maintenance, and depreciation

    • For a single Tide-Energy generating station:

      • Annual Receipts (charging 5 batteries/day) 1750

      • Costs (labor, maintenance, and depreciation) 824

      • Profit US$ 926


    Wave power
    -Wave Power-

    • Salter’s Duck design

      • Could stop 90% of wave motion and could convert 90% of that to electricity

      • Shut down because of an error in calculating the cost, which wasn’t discovered until 2008, and the program had been shut down in 1982


    How it works
    -How it Works-

    • The “duck” device bobs back and forth as waves pass, this motion moves a pendulum that is connected to a generator that produces electricity

    http://www.permaculture.org.au/images/ocean_power_salters_duck.gif


    Some companies
    -Some Companies-

    • Some companies designing mechanisms

      • Wavegen

        • Limpet

      • Ocean Power Delivery

        • Pelamis tube

      • Renewable Energy Holdings

        • CETO

      • Oyster Wave Energy devices


    Advantages and disadvantages
    -Advantages and Disadvantages-

    • Advantages

      • The energy is free – no fuel needed, no waste produced

      • Not expensive to operate and maintain

      • Can produce a great deal of energy

  • Disadvantages

    • Depends on the waves – sometimes you’ll get loads of energy, sometimes almost nothing

    • Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong

    • Some designs are noisy. But then again, so are waves, so any noise is unlikely to be a problem

    • Must be able to withstand


  • Environmental impact1
    -Environmental Impact-

    • Noise pollution

    • Displace productive fishing sites

    • Change the pattern of beach sand nourishment

    • Alter food chains and disrupt migration patterns

    • Offshore devices will displace bottom-dwelling organisms where they connect into the


    Sources
    -Sources-

    • (2006). Tidal Energy Industry Boom. Retrieved http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/tidal-energy-industry-boom/

    • (2008). Renewable Energy: Ocean Wave Power. Retrieved http://www.energysavers. gov/renewable_energy/ocean/index.cfm/mytopic=50009

    • (2009) Ocean Wave Energy. Retrieved http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/guide/wave/index.cfm

    • (2010). America’s Premiere Wave Power Farm Sets Sail. Retrieved http://www. alternative-energy-news.info/wave-power-farm-sets-sail/

    • (2010). History of Tidal Energy. Retrieved. http://www.google.com/#q=history+of+tidal+energy&hl=en&tbs=tl :1&tbo=u&ei=nPavS6aeAYH48Ab-q6y9Dw&sa=X&oi =timeline_result&ct=title&resnum=11&ved=0CDgQ5wIwCg&fp=1&cad=b

    • Kirke, B. (2006) Developments in ducted water current turbines. Retrieved http://www.cyberiad.net/library/pdf/bk_tidal_paper25apr06.pdf

    • Lamb, H. (1994) Hydrodynamics. England. Cambridge University Press.

    • Meyer, R. (2009). Tidal energy . Retrieved from http://www.oceanenergycouncil.com/ index.php/Tidal-Energy/Tidal-Energy.html

    • Tayor, P. (2007). Seagen Tidal Power Installation. Retrieved http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/seagen-tidal-power-installation/