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Chapter 4. Life in Colonial America (1607-1775). A Land of Variety Variety of Peoples (1607-1775) Colonial Era – from the founding of Jamestown to the War for Independence English, Scots-Irish, German, French, etc. 2.5 million people by 1776 19\% African slaves

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Life in Colonial America (1607-1775)

slide2
A Land of Variety
    • Variety of Peoples
      • (1607-1775) Colonial Era – from the founding of Jamestown to the War for Independence
      • English, Scots-Irish, German, French, etc.
      • 2.5 million people by 1776
      • 19% African slaves
      • Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Charles Town were among the largest cities
slide3
Diversity of Churches
    • American colonies offered more religious freedom than anywhere else in the world
    • Southern Colonies
      • Maryland, Virginia, N. and S. Carolina, Georgia
      • Anglican church = official church
      • Huguenots = French Protestants in S.C.
      • Paul Revere – (Huguenot descent) Renowned Boston silversmith and patriot
slide4
Middle Colonies
    • New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware
    • More religious diversity
      • Presbyterians, Baptists, Anglicans, Mennonites, Dutch Reformed, Quakers, Jews, Amish, Moravians
    • Moravians – wrote the 1st classical music to be composed in America
slide5
New England
    • Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island
    • Known for its many churches
    • Most churches in the early years were Puritan (Congregational) churches
  • Role of Christianity
    • The Bible helped shape American character
    • Christianity gave people a sense of nobility and hard work
slide6
The Livelihood of the Colonies
    • Agriculture
      • 90% of colonists depended on farming (main occupation)
      • Farmers were self-reliant
      • Homespun – linen and wool cloth from which clothes were made
slide7
New England – the region least suited for agriculture
    • Long winters
    • Short growing season
    • Rocky terrain
  • Middle Colonies = “Bread Colonies”
    • They produced an abundance of grain
  • Southern Colonies
    • Tobacco
    • Indigo – used to produce blue dye
slide8
Industry
    • Lumber – New England had lots of trees
    • Shipbuilding (from the timber)
    • Fishing and whaling (from the shipbuilding)
      • Cold Atlantic waters held great fish
    • Fur trading
      • Bartering – trading or exchanging goods with the Indians
    • Blacksmithing – shod horses and forged tools for farming and wagons
    • England was chief overseas customer
slide9
Triangle Trade Route
    • 2 distinct ports that New England used
    • Africa  West Indies  Back to N. E.
  • Fruits of Freedom
    • Mercantilism – colonies existed solely for the good of the mother country
slide10
Colonial Culture
    • Home Life
      • Houses started simple/temporary
      • Then came log cabins/wood cottages
        • Nails were scarce
      • Dutch (New York) used brick homes
      • Southern plantations had mansions
      • (1720’s) Georgian Architecture
        • Large brick/stone homes
      • The fireplace was central in American life
slide11
Travel and Communication
    • (1750) “Post Roads” connected major cities
    • Stagecoaches travelled between cities
  • Recreation
    • Quilting bees
    • Corn huskings
    • Barn Raisings
slide12
Social Classes
    • Social status = building successful life in the wilderness
    • 3 social classes
      • Top = Aristocracy (wealthy)
      • Middle = Farmers / Shop-keepers
      • Bottom = Servants / Slaves
    • Slavery in the South = an established institution
slide13
Life on the Frontier
    • Frontier: sparsely populated areas on the fringe of settlement
    • Appalachian Mtns. were natural barrier to the West
    • Daniel Boone
      • Discovered Cumberland Gap – a natural pass through the mtns.
      • Explored Kentucky and Tennessee
      • His trail is known as “The Wilderness Road”
slide14
The Advance of Learning
    • Grammar School
      • New England
        • Dame School – conducted by widow or single lady
        • Hornbook = paddle-shaped book with alphabet, Lord’s prayer, or scripture verse
        • New England Primer = most widely used textbook in Colonial America
slide15
Middle Colonies
    • Latin Grammar Schools
    • Philadelphia Academy= founded by Benjamin Franklin
  • Southern Colonies
    • Private tutors
    • Old-field schools
  • Apprentices = boys placed under the authority and care of a master craftsman in order to learn a trade
slide16
Higher Education
    • Harvard – Puritans
    • College of William and Mary – Anglicans
    • Yale – Congregationalists
    • Princeton University – Presbyterians
    • Brown University – Baptists
    • Philadelphia Academy – nonsectarian (not founded by a specific religious denomination)
slide17
Spread of Knowledge
    • Boston News Letter – 1st regularly published weekly newspaper in colonies
    • Benjamin Franklin
      • encouraged the founding of public libraries
      • Wrote Poor Richard’s Almanac – contained meteorogicaland astronomical info (also told proverbs)
slide18
Arts
    • Paul Revere – renowned Boston silversmith
    • William Billings
      • 1st professional musician and composer born in America
      • Started singing schools
  • Science
    • John Winthrop Jr. – 1st American member of Royal society of London (1st scientific society)
    • Benjamin Franklin – best known colonial man of science
    • Benjamin Banneker – built a clock made entirely of wood
    • Cotton Mather – smallpox vaccine
slide19
Government in the Colonies
    • Colonial Government
      • 3 types of government (*Essay Question*)
        • Royal Colonies – under direct authority of king
          • Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North and South Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Georgia
        • Proprietary Colonies – granted by king to individual proprietors (noblemen)
          • Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware
        • Self-governing – granted charters allowing them to rule themselves
          • Rhode Island, Connecticut
      • Governor – chief executive officer of each colony
slide20
Local Government
    • Followed England’s pattern of strong self-government
    • (New England) “town” was the basic unit of local gov.
    • (Southern Colonies) “county” was the basic unit of local gov.
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