The testis. Is oval structure surrounded anterolaterally by peritoneal outpouching called tunica vaginalis. Deeper to the tunica vaginalis is a pasule of dense irregular collagenous CT called
anterolaterally by peritoneal
outpouching called tunica vaginalis.
vaginalis is a pasule of dense
irregular collagenous CT called
tunica albuginea.Posteriorlly it forms mediastinum testis, from which septa radiate to subdivided each testis into 250 compartment (lobuli testis).
others by vascular CT.
(tunica propria) rich in
collagen-I and fibroblasts.
may be present.
peripheral (abluminal) and
central (adluminal) compartments.
(small diploid germ cells).
contains primary spermatocyts,
spermatids and sperms.
They are reserve (stem) cells.
2. Pale type A :Their nuclei are oval &
flat and have abundant euchromatin,
by testesterone they undergo mitosis
to give rise more type A and
type B spermatogonia.
3. Type B :As type A with round nuclei.
By mitosis they give primary spermatocytes.
chromosomes (4n DNA) and
diploid (2n) chromosomes
number, then enter the first
meiotic division to give
1-Spermatocytogenesis (differentiation of spermatogonia to 1ry spermatocytes).
2-Meiosis (reduction division of 1ry and 2ry spermatocytes to produce spermatids).
3-Spermiogenesis (transformation of spermatids into sperms)
1-Glgi phase (formation of acrosomal vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes bound to the nuclear envelope. Formation of flagellar axoneme)
2-Cap phase (acrosomal cap formation).
3-Acrosomal phase (nuclear condensation, elongation of the cell and shifting of mitochondria) .
4-Maturation phase (shedding of spermatid cytoplasm that phagocytosed by Sertoli cells).
4-the end piece
Is composed of axoneme
that surrounded by
located nuclei with central nucleolus.
mitochondria, Golgi apparatus,
cytoskeleton and endolysosomal
from the seminifrous tubules
to the rete testis.
in their first half and by simple
cuboidal cells in the second half.
B-rete testis, is lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli and a single flagellum.
A-Epididymis,( a thin long highly convoluted tubule). It is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium that is formed of tow types of cells:
a-Basal cells which are short pyramidal cells with round nuclei (heterochromatin). They are stem cells.
b-Principal cells are columnar to cuboidal cells with basal pale nuclei. They are rich in rER &sRE. They have stereocilia (non-motile microvilli). They absorb the luminal fluid, act as phagocytic cells and secrete glycoprotein that inhibits capacitation of sperms. Under the basal lamina there is loose CT which is surrounded with a layer of circularly arranged smooth muscle
B-Ductus (vas) deference, it is a thick walled muscular tube with small irregular lumen.
1-Mucosa, of pseudostratified columnar epith. With stereocilia, basal lamina and fibroelastic CT.
2-Muscularis, three layers,
inner and outer longitudinal
layers and middle circular layer.
3-Fibroelastic loose CT(adventitia).
The terminal end is dilated
to form ampulla that joined with
seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct.
It is pierced with urethra and ejaculatory ducts. It is surrounded with dense irregular collagenous capsule that is rich in smooth muscle cells. The CT. stroma is formed of CT. rich in smooth muscle.
It is formed of 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands.
* mucosal glands, closest to urethra
* submucosal, peripheral and larger than mucosal part
* Main gland, the outermost and largest part.
The secretory portion is lined with simple to pseudostratified columnar
epithelium, their lumen contains calcified glycoprotein
The prostatic secretion is rich in,
acid phosphatase, lipids,
proteolytiic enzymes, fibrinolysin
and citric acid.
It is formed of three columns of erectile tissues (vascular spaces separated by trabeculae of CT. and smooth muscle), each enclosed by dense fibrous CT. tunica albuginea.
There are two dorsally located corpora cavernosa and ventrally located single corpora spogiosum through which the urethra passes (penile urethra).
It is covered with thin skin that is formed of epidermis and dermis but no hypodermis.