Major Depression Jailene Canessa Period 8 03/11/14
Etiology of Major Depression- Sociocultural • Sociocultural • People putting you down • Social Statue • Social Environment
Etiology of Major Depression- Cognitive • Cognitive • Traumatic Events • Bullying • Physical/Emotional Abuse
Etiology of Major Depression- Biological • Biological • Genetic Predisposition • Serotonin Levels • Having a smaller amygdala
What is Major Depression? • Major Depression defined • It is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts. It interferes with daily life, normal functioning, and causes pain for both the person with the disorder and those who care about him or her. • A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. People with a depressive illness cannot merely "pull themselves together" and get better.
How do we know?- Symptoms (According to DSM V) • Depressed mood • Loss of interest or pleasure • Significant weight loss or gain or change in appetite • Insomnia or hypersomnia • Psychomotor agitation or retardation • Fatigue or loss of energy • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt • Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness • Recurrent suicidal ideation
Video- Introduction to Major Depression • I had a black dog, his name was depression.avi
Can we prove it medically? • Of approx. 30 neurotransmitters which have been identified, researchers have discovered associations between clinical depression and the function of three major neurochemicals. These substances are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. • Antidepressants influence the overall balance of these three neurotransmitters within structures of the brain. • They regulate: • emotion, reactions to stress, and the physical drives of sleep, appetite, and sexuality.
What can happen? • Suicide • Self-harm • Develop other behavioral disorders • PTSD • Bipolar • Anxiety • Anemia • Due to low iron levels • Insomnia • Alcoholism • Addiction
Does it affect Gender? Men Women Women are twice as likely as men to experience major depression. This discrepancy may be due to the inherent hormonal fluctuations of womanhood. menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Women are particularly vulnerable to depression following childbirth, a condition known as postpartum depression. Women suffering that are likely to kill themselves or their child. • Men often conceal depression better and are less likely to seek treatment for major depression. • See it as a feminine thing conceal with substance abuse. • While men are less likely to attempt suicide than women, men are more successful. • Rate of suicide among men increases with age, peaking at 85. • Depression in men tends to manifest itself in the form of irritability, anger, and feelings of discouragement and low self-worth.
What kind of treatments are available? • Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) • Treatment of SSRI-resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) • Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) • Medication • Anti-depressants • Tricyclic- build serotonin levels • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors- also build up serotonin levels • CBT • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy • Have you confront your issues and attempt to change your way of thinking about it and changing the behavior associated with it.
Treatments continued • Using both medication and therapy/counseling. • Behavioral Activation • identify environmental factors that are maintaining the depression and the factors that limit pleasurable activity, and then gradually increase that positive activity to not only increase one's pleasure, but one's sense of control as well. • Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) • When the psychologist attempts to make changes to your personal social sphere rather than the behavior and build up their social and communication skills to build better relationships.
Neuromaturational Factors (Biological) Neurotransmitters Hormones Imbalances in hormone levels (cortisol and depression). There have also been MRI’s proving one with depression is affecting its cognitive processes. Stress (Sociocultural Factors): 1) Severe life events and social status. 2) Tragedies affecting life (Traumatic events) OUTCOME Depression Constitutional (biological) vulnerability • Cognitive Factors: • 1. Irritable (always mad) • 2. Mental Paranoia • 3. Thinks the world is against them. • Studies: • Fava, Maurizio, and Kenneth S. Kendler. Major Depressive Disorder (2001) • 2)Belmaker, R.H, and GalilaAgam. Mechanisms of Disease: Major Depressive Disorder. (2008) • No single mechanism can account for all the clinical variations in this condition. The monoamine oxidase theory can explain many of the actions of antidepressants. Inherited Factors (Biological): 1) Genetic Predisposition (expression for Depression) Studies: Nurnberger and Gershon (1982) on concordance rates in twin studies for depression. (MORE LIKELY TO GET IT IF PREDISPOSED TO DISEASE GENETICALLY)
Bibliography • Belmaker, R.H, and GalilaAgam. Mechanisms of Disease: Major Depressive Disorder. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2008. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. <http://maceiras.org/laasiste/downloads/Depresion/Depresion-medicos-1.pdf>. • Fava, Maurizio, and Kenneth S. Kendler. Major Depressive Disorder. Cell Press, 2000. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. <file:///C:/Users/Jailene/Downloads/00000111.pdf>. • "Major Depression." Major Depression. Depressedtest.com, 2006-2010. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.depressedtest.com/major_depression.html>. • "Major Depressive Disorder Among Adults." NIMH RSS. National Institute of Mental Health, 2008. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1mdd_adult.shtml>. • "Medscape Log In." Medscape Log In. Medscape, n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/467185_4>. • "Take the Depression Test." Depression Test, Am I Depressed?Depression,com, 2006. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.depressedtest.com/>.