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Relative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns

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Relative Pronouns

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  1. Relative Pronouns • Relative pronouns are words that connect two clauses of a sentence to create a more complex sentence rather than having two simpler sentences with repetitive words. • There are several relative pronouns in English: who/whom; which and that. • In French you will use the relative pronouns qui; que and dont. All three French relative pronouns mean who/whom; which; that. • You must recognize the parts of speech to choose the correct French relative pronoun

  2. Relative pronouns qui and que • The relative pronoun que (that, which, whom) is used to describe something that was already mentioned (the antecedent). • Que/qu’ is the object of the relative clause and is usually followed by a subject. • The relative pronoun qui (that, which, who) is used to describe something that was already mentioned (the antecedent). • Qui is the subject of the relative clause and is usually followed by a verb.

  3. Relative pronouns qui and que • Tuconnais le film avec Tom Cruise? • Le film joue à Loews. • Le film is mentioned in both sentences. You can combine these two sentences by taking out le film, the subject in the second sentence and then replacing it with the relative pronoun qui. • Tuconnais le film avec Tom Cruise quijoue à Loews? • Tu as déjà vu le film? • J’adore le film! • Le film is mentioned in both sentences again. You can combine these two sentences by taking out le film, the direct object in the second sentence and replacing it with the relative pronoun que. • Tu as déjà vu le film quej’adore? qui = subject que = object

  4. Relative pronoun dont • The relative pronoun dont is used in French to mean of whom; of which; it is always used in place of the preposition de and a noun. • Memorize these five verbal expressions that contain the preposition de: • parler de to talk about • avoirbesoin de to need • avoirenvie de to feel like • avoirpeur de to be afraid of • For now, these are the only phrases you will need to use with dont, however the list goes on and on!

  5. Relative pronoun dont • Tuconnais le film? • Je parle du film. • Le film is mentioned in both sentences. You can combine these two sentences by taking out du film, the object of the preposition de in the second sentence and replacing it with the relative pronoun dont. • Tuconnais le film dont je parle?

  6. Relative pronoun dont • Dont also means whose. It is used to show possession. When dont shows possession you may not have a possessive adjective (mon, ma, mes, etc.) in the same sentence; you must use a definite article (le, la, l’, les) instead. • Voilà la fille. (There’s the girl.) • Je connaissamère. (I know her mom.) • Voilà la filledont je connaisla mère. (There’s the girl whose mom I know.)

  7. Present Participles • A present participle is a verb form ending in the letters –ing in English. It doesn’t have a subject, EVER!! • To form a present participle in French you have to conjugate the verb in the present indicative nous form, drop the –ons and add the ending –ant. • parlerparlonsparlant (talking) • finirfinissonsfinissant (finishing) • perdreperdonsperdant (losing)

  8. Present Participles • There are only 3 irregular present participles in French. They must be memorized! • êtreétant (being) • avoirayant (having) • savoir sachant (knowing) • Remember they are never ever used with a subject!

  9. There are 3 uses of present participles in French. • 1. As an adjective: (make agreement) • un hommefascinant • une femme fascinante • 2. To say “while/by/upon ---ing...” • Je mange (tout) en regardant la télé. • adding tout before en emphasizes the action • 3. In place of the relative pronoun qui • La fille qui porte le pull rouge estsympa. • La filleportantle pull rouge estsympa. Present Participles Present participles are used much more often in English. Do not confuse these with conjugated verbs ending in –ing. You would just use present or imparfait for that translation.