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Operational Hazards. The overall objective for this module is that the participants will recognize general safety hazards and safe work practices related to fixed facility work. Overview. Common safety hazards Safe work practices Preventing and treating heat and cold stress

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operational hazards

Operational Hazards

The overall objective for this module is that the participants will recognize general safety hazards and safe work practices related to fixed facility work

  • Common safety hazards
  • Safe work practices
  • Preventing and treating heat and cold stress
  • Proper lifting and handling
  • Confined space procedures
  • Define a general safety hazard
  • Identify general methods to prevent accidents
  • Recognize general safety-hazard categories and related precautions
  • Identify symptoms and prevention measures for heat stress and cold stress
  • Recognize biological hazards
  • Recognize ergonomic hazards
  • Identify general precautions for confined space work
  • Identify potential fire hazards and fire prevention strategies
operational hazard
Operational Hazard
  • Anything on or around a work site which may compromise worker safety or health if appropriate control measures are not implemented
prevention of accidents
Prevention of Accidents
  • Aware of changing conditions
  • Take initiative to correct potential safety hazards
  • Understand the task
  • Watch for weather conditions, wind direction and unusual odors
ten common causes of accidents
Ten Common Causes of Accidents
  • Poor instructions
  • Poor planning
  • Improper design
  • Improper equipment provided or


  • Failure to follow instructions
ten common causes of accidents1
Ten Common Causes of Accidents
  • Neglect or improper use of equipment
  • Faulty equipment
  • Untrained personnel
  • Uncooperative personnel
  • Uncontrollable or unexpected outside agents (e.g., weather or sudden illness)


Lost Time


Reportable Injury

Minor Injuries

Near Misses











Site Hazards

Heavy Equipment

Small Power Tools and Equipment

Hand Tools

Lifting and Carrying

Compressed Gas Cylinders

Electrical Hazards

Lifting Safely

Back injuries are the Nation’s


Workplace Safety Problem

lifting safely
Lifting Safely
  • Preparing to Lift
    • Clear obstacles away
    • Heft to check weight
  • Performing the Lift
    • Square with object
    • Balance
    • Squat, bend knees, grip object, tighten abdomen


safe lifting tips
Safe Lifting Tips
  • Don’t life objects over your head
  • Don’t twist
  • Pace yourself
  • Don’t reach over an obstacle
  • Follow your workplace safety guidelines
common site hazards
Common Site Hazards
  • Heat stress
  • Cold stress
  • Biological hazards
  • Confined spaces
heat stress
Heat Stress
  • Occurswithin 15 minutes
  • Factors to consider:
    • Poses serious health threats
    • Environmental conditions (including air temperature and humidity)
    • Clothing
    • Workload
    • Individual worker characteristics
forms of heat stress
Forms of Heat Stress
  • Heat Syncope
  • Heat Cramps
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Stroke
  • Heat Rash
  • Transient Heat Fatigue
heat syncope
Heat Syncope
  • Fainting
  • Frequently occurs when a worker is not acclimated to hot environments
heat cramps
Heat Cramps
  • Caused by excessive loss of salt during sweating
  • Symptoms
    • Muscle spasms in the extremities, abdomen, or back
heat cramps1
Heat Cramps
  • Treatment
    • Massaging the cramped muscles
    • Replenishing the victim’s water and electrolytes
heat exhaustion
Heat Exhaustion
  • Victim suffers from a severe lack of fluids and salts
  • Symptoms
    • Pale or flushed skin
    • Moist skin
    • Headache
    • Fatigue
    • Nausea
    • Normal or slightly elevated temperature
    • Profuse sweating
heat exhaustion1
Heat Exhaustion
  • Treatment
    • Victim must rest in a cool place
    • Drink water
heat stroke
Heat Stroke
  • Most severe form of heat stress
  • Caused by a failure of the body’s temperature regulation mechanism
heat stroke1
Heat Stroke
  • Symptoms
    • Absence or reduction of sweating
    • Elevated body temperature
    • Skin is red, hot, and dry
    • Dizziness
    • Nausea,
    • Confusion
  • Treatment
    • Medical attention as soon as possible
heat rash
Heat Rash
  • Prickly heat and transpires in a hot, humid environment where sweat is unable to evaporate
  • Prevention
    • Worker must periodically rest in a cool place
    • Skin must be bathed regularly and kept as dry as possible
transient heat fatigue
Transient Heat Fatigue
  • Causes temporary discomfort accompanied by mental and/or psychological strain, which affects task performance, coordination, and alertness
  • Treatment
    • Lessened by gradual adjustment to heat conditions
prevention of heat stress
Prevention of Heat Stress
  • Maintain adequate water intake
  • Take breaks in a cool place
  • Learn the signs and symptoms of heat stress and respond at the earliest point of detection
  • Schedule heavy work or work in PPE for cool times of the day
  • Move work location to shade or cooler area
prevention of heat stress1
Prevention of Heat Stress
  • Have workers drink 16 ounces of water before beginning work
  • Urge workers to drink a cup or two of water every 15 to 20 minutes
  • Weigh workers before and after work to determine if fluid replacement is adequate
cold stress
Cold Stress
  • Superficial Frostbite
  • Deep Frostbite
  • Hypothermia
superficial frostbite
Superficial Frostbite
  • Characterized by the freezing of only the outer skin layer
  • Treatment
    • Protect the exposed area by placing uncovered fingers under opposite armpits or placing bare frostbitten feet under clothes or against the skin of a companion until pain returns
superficial frostbite1
Superficial Frostbite
    • Warm frostbitten parts by massaging
    • Expose to an open fire
    • Soak in cold water
    • Rub with snow
deep frostbite
Deep Frostbite
  • Characterized by the freezing of tissue beneath the outer skin layer
  • Treatment
    • Protect frozen parts from further cold exposure
    • Keep victim warm while being transported to a hospital
  • NOTE: Protect frozen parts from additional injury

Do not attempt to thaw them in the field

  • Characterized by subnormal body temperatures
  • Treatment
    • Keep victim warm
    • Give warm beverages or soup
  • NOTE: Alcohol consumption increases risk
  • NOTE: Death can occur
prevention of cold stress
Prevention of Cold Stress
  • Wear proper clothing
  • Maintain a proper diet
  • Use shelter
  • Monitor worker’s conditions
biological hazards
Biological Hazards
  • Ticks
  • Bees and Wasps
  • Spiders and Scorpions
  • Snakes
  • Rabid Animals
ergonomic hazards
Ergonomic Hazards
  • Study of how a human physically and mentally interacts with the workplace
  • Notify manager or supervisor of hazards
material handling
Material Handling
  • Use mechanical devices
    • Drum dollies
    • Pallet dollies
    • Push carts and dollies so you can see ahead and around the load
material handling1
Material Handling
  • Do it the easy way
  • Push rather than pull
  • Bend your knees, not your back
  • Step with legs, don’t rotate
  • Use ladders for high loads
  • Wear steel-toed boots
  • Pick up stacks in two steps
  • Don’t block your visibility
container handling
Container Handling
  • Hazard Recognition
    • Detonation, fire and explosion
    • Vapor generation
    • Physical injury caused by lifting improperly or moving containers
container handling1
Container Handling
  • Drum Handling Safety
    • Use forklifts, dollies and pallet jacks
    • Wear protective PPE
    • Check drum for sharp edges or rust
    • Plan the move and clear obstructions
    • Manually lift with good technique
    • Do not handle or move if safety is questioned
confined space
Confined Space
  • Adequate size and configuration for employee entry
  • Limited means for entry and exit, one and/or small openings
  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy, such as small utility spaces
confined space permits
Confined Space Permits
  • Contains or has the potential for containing a hazardous atmosphere
  • Contains a material that has a potential for engulfing an entrant
  • Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped
  • Contains any other recognized serious safety hazard
atmospheric hazards
Atmospheric Hazards
  • Flammable gas in excess of 10% LEL
  • Airborne combustible dust which meets LEL
  • Oxygen concentration below 19.5% or in excess of 23.5%
  • An atmosphere which could result in employee exposure in excess of PEL
other potential hazards
Other Potential Hazards
  • Mechanical Hazards
  • Slips, Trips and Falls
  • ART - There is an “art” to preventing slips, trips and falls
    • Awareness
    • Responsibility
    • Traction
slips trips and falls
Slips, Trips and Falls
  • Awareness
    • Be alert throughout the workday
    • Look ahead from the knee level
    • Know where there are existing step hazards
    • Look for wet areas
    • Look for obstructions and electrical cords
slips trips and falls1
Slips, Trips and Falls
  • Responsibility
    • Everyone in the workplace must assume responsibility for keeping a safe work area
    • One is more likely to be injured from a slip, trip, or fall than from hazardous chemicals
    • Take the time to remove the hazard or notify those who are able to do so
slips trips and falls2
Slips, Trips and Falls
  • Traction
    • Be aware of changing conditions
    • Maintain good footwear with traction
    • Enhance traction by using rough surfacing, lowering slopes of ramps and replacing low-traction surfaces
fire safety uniform fire code
Fire Safety (Uniform Fire Code)
  • Check with your local fire officials
  • Flammables and combustibles may be a large proportion of waste accepted
  • Multiple hazards