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  1. Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding

  2. Chemical Bonds There are three basic types of bonds: Ionic - The electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent - The sharing of electrons between atoms Metallic - Each metal atom bonds to other metals atoms within a "sea" of 
electrons (covered in a later unit)

  3. Periodic Table - Review The periodic table is "periodic" because of certain trends that are 
seen in the elements. Properties of elements are functions of their atomic number. Elements from the same family/group have similar physical and 
chemical properties. Atoms are listed on the periodic table in rows, based on number 
of protons, which is equal to the number of electrons in a neutral 
atom.

  4. The Periodic Table of the Elements The periodic table can be also divided into metals (left/blue) and 
nonmetals (right/yellow). A few elements retain some of the properties of metals and 
nonmetals, they are called metalloids (staircase/pink). B Si Ge As Sb Te ?

  5. 1 In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in 
__________. A alphabetical order B order of increasing atomic number C order of increasing metallic properties D order of increasing neutron content E reverse alphabetical order F I don't know how to answer this.

  6. 2 Elements __________ exhibit similar physical 
and chemical properties. A with similar chemical symbols B with similar atomic masses C in the same period of the periodic table D on opposite sides of the periodic table E in the same group of the periodic table F I don't know how to answer this.

  7. 3 Which pair of elements would you expect to 
exhibit the greatest similarity in their physical 
and chemical properties? A H, Li B Cs, Ba C Ca, Si D Ga, Ge E C, O F I don't know how to answer this.

  8. 4 Which one of the following is a nonmetal? A W B Sr C Os D Ir E S F I don't know how to answer this.

  9. 5 Potassium is a __________ and chlorine 
is a __________. A metal, nonmetal B metal, metal C metal, metalloid D metalloid, nonmetal E nonmetal, metal F I don't know how to answer this.

  10. Review: Octet Rule Atoms tend towards having complete outer shells of 
electrons (remember stability). A full outer shell will have:  2 electrons in the s subshell and  6 electrons in the p subshell ( s2p6 configuration) Octet rule: atoms tend towards having a total of 8 electrons 8 valence electrons make an octet

  11. Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons in the 
highest occupied energy level of an 
element’s atoms. The number of valence electrons largely 
determines the chemical properties of an 
element. Valence electron To find the number of valence electrons in an atom of a 
representative element, simply look at its group number. Atoms in group 3 have 3 valence electrons, atoms in group 17 have 7 valence electrons, etc.

  12. Valence Electrons Number of valence 
electrons in neutral atoms: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 - 4 There is one exception: helium has only 2 valence electrons.

  13. 6 How many valence electrons does 
Aluminum have? A 5 B 7 C 3 D 27 E I don't know how to answer this.

  14. 7 How many valence electrons does Barium 
have? A 1 B 2 C 52 D 3 E I don't know how to answer this.

  15. Ions Cations are positive and are formed by elements on the 
left side of the periodic chart 
(metals). Anions are negative and 
are formed by elements on 
the right side of the periodic 
chart (nonmetals).

  16. The Formation of Cations Metals usually give up valence electrons This results in a noble gas (8 electron) outer shell. Ne atom Na : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 Na+1 : 1s2 2s2 2p6 Loss of valence 
electrons The configuration of the Sodium ion is the same as Neon

  17. The Formation of Cations Na atom Na+ ion loses e- 11p 10e- 11p 11e-

  18. The Formation of Cations Cations of Group 1A elements always 
have a charge of 1+. Cations of Group 2A elements always 
have a charge of 2+. Mg2+ 2e- Mg + Magnesium atom (electrically neutral, charge = 0) (2 in front of e- indicates 2 units of 
negative charge) Magnesium ion (+2 indicates 2 
units of positive 
charge)

  19. The Formation of Anions Nonmetals usually gain valence electrons. This results in a noble gas (8 electrons) outer shell Ar atom Cl: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Cl- 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6 A chloride ion has the same electron configuration as argon.

  20. The Formation of Anions Cl- ion Cl atom Gains an e- 17P 17e- 17p 18e-

  21. The Formation of Anions Anions of Group 15 (5A) elements 
have a charge of 3- Anions of Group 16 (6A) elements 
always have a charge of 2- Anions of Group 17 (7A) elements 
have a charge of 1-

  22. 8 Metals tend to __________ electrons and 
cations tend to __________ electrons. A gain, gain B lose, lose C gain, lose D lose, gain E neither, they keep their electrons F I don't know how to answer this.

  23. 9 Anions tend to be __________ and cations 
tend to be __________. A metals, metals B nonmetals, nonmetals C metals, nonmetals D nonmetals, metals E metalloids, metalloids F I don't know how to answer this.

  24. 10 Metals lose electrons to form cations True False

  25. 11 Anions are formed from nonmetals True False

  26. 12 Nonmetals tend to lose electrons forming ions True False

  27. 13 This is the ion formed from a calcium atom A Ca+ B Ca2+ C Ca- D Ca2- E I don't know how to answer this.

  28. 14 Barium forms an ion with a charge of __________. A 1+ B 2- C 3+ D 3- E 2+ F I don't know how to answer this.

  29. 15 Aluminum forms an ion with a charge of 
__________. A 2+ B 1- C 3+ D 2- E 0 F I don't know how to answer this.

  30. 16 Of the following, __________ contains the 
greatest number of electrons. A P3+ B P C P2- D P3- E P2+ F I don't know how to answer this.

  31. 17 Oxygen forms an ion with a charge of __________. A 2- B 2+ C 3- D 3+ E 6+ F I don't know how to answer this.

  32. 18 Iodine forms an ion with a charge of __________. A 7- B 1+ C 2- D 2+ E 1- F I don't know how to answer this.

  33. 19 This is the ion formed from nitrogen A N- B N2- C N3+ D N3- E I don't know how to answer this.

  34. 20 Predict the charge of the most stable ion of S? A 3+ B 1- C 6+ D 2+ E 2- F I don't know how to answer this.

  35. Ionic Bonding Electronegativity is how strongly an atom attracts electrons. Atoms with a high electronegativity will be able to attract electrons 
away from atoms with a much lower electronegativity. This removal of electrons can occur when the difference in 
electronegativity between the two atoms is approximately 1.7 or 
higher. Once a positive and negative ion are formed, they will be 
attracted to each other via the electrostatic force: F = k q1 q2 Note: The heavier nonmetals 
from 4,6,5th groups ( In, Tl, Sn, Pb, Sb Bi ) may act like metals r2

  36. Ionic Bonding An electronegativity difference of 
approximately 1.7 can only occur 
between a metal and a nonmetal.

  37. 21 Which pair of atoms will form an ionic bond? A Li and Ne B K and Br C K and Cs D S and Cl E I don't know 
how to 
answer this.

  38. 22 Which pair of atoms will form an ionic bond? A Li and Be B Na and Mg C K and Ca D Na and Cl E I don't know 
how to 
answer this.

  39. 23 Which of the following compounds would you 
expect to be ionic? A H2O B CO2 C SrCl2 D SO2 E H2S F I don't know how to answer this.

  40. Formation of Ionic Compounds Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic 
compounds. Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic 
compounds are called ionic bonds.

  41. Ionic Bonds When sodium and chlorine are close together, sodium's valence electron 
flies off and "harpoons" the chlorine atom. The result is a sodium cation (+) next to a chloride anion (-) These oppositely charged two ions attract: they reel one another together 
to form an ionic bond. Cl Na+ Cl- Na 1s2 2s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 1s2 2s2 2p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 Ne Ar

  42. Ionic Bonds The electron transfer process in creating an ionic bond: Na Cl The dots represents the valence electrons in an atom. click here for an 
animation of this reaction

  43. Formula Units A chemical formula shows the 
kinds and numbers of atoms in 
the smallest representative unit of 
a substance. A formula unit is the lowest 
whole-number ratio of ions in an 
ionic compound. Every ionic compound has a 3D 
array of positive and negative 
ions.

  44. [*] Properties of Ionic Compounds They are crystalline solids at room temperature They have high melting points They conduct electricity when melted (molten) or dissolved in water (aqueous)

  45. Ionic bond Nomenclature

  46. Writing ionic compounds or Criss-Cross Rule

  47. 1. Main Group metals Alkali (1) Alkali earth (2) Group 13 (3A)

  48. Step 3: AlCl 3 Example: Aluminum Chloride Criss-Cross Rule Aluminum Chloride Step 1: write symbols & charge of elements on top (charges based on group numbers) Al Cl 3+ 1- Step 2: Al Cl criss-cross charges as subscripts 1 3 combine as formula unit (“1” is never shown)

  49. Example: Aluminum Chloride Criss-Cross Rule Step 1: Aluminum Chloride Step 2: Al3+ Cl1- Step 3: AlCl 1 3 AlCl 3

  50. Example: Aluminum Oxide Criss-Cross Rule Step 1: Aluminum Oxide Step 2: Al3+ O2- Step 3: Al O 2 3 Al2O3