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Constitutional Convention

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  1. Constitutional Convention Chapter 2 Section 4

  2. Vocab • Interstate Commerce • Extralegal • Anarchy • Advocate • Modification • Publish

  3. Convention Begins • May 1787 in Philadelphia • States were allowed 74 delegates, 55 attended, 39 signed the final draft of the Constitution • In attendance were Washington, Franklin (81 at the time), Madison • Was an advocate, meaning pushed for, a strong central government • Majority ruled, no votes took place unless 7 of the 13 states were present

  4. Key Agreements • Agreed to abandon the Articles of start again • Favored limited and representative government • Agreed to three branches of divided government • Limit states ability to coin money • Should strengthen national government

  5. Decisions and Compromises • Virginia Plan • Strong national legislature; two chambers • Lower chamber by the people, upper chamber from the lower chamber • National executive chosen by legislature • This plan set the framework for the government • Modifications – changes • Favored bigger states

  6. Decisions and Compromises • The New Jersey Plan • Unicameral legislature – one vote from each state • Congress got the power to tax and regulate trade • Weak executive, multiple people • Limited judiciary • Just amend the Articles of Confederation

  7. Decisions and Compromises • Connecticut Compromise • House of Representatives based on population • All revenue laws start here • Senate – two members from each state • Why was this an important compromise?

  8. Three Fifths Compromise • Large slave population in the South would help representation • Did not want slaves counted for taxation • Only 3/5ths of slaves would be counted for both representation and taxation

  9. Commerce and the Slave Trade • Could not ban the slave trade until 1808 • Gave Congress power to regulate interstate commerce • Could not impose export tax

  10. Slavery • Northern states were moving towards abolishing slavery • Compromised with Southern states to not address it at the time • Left it to future generations

  11. Other Compromises • President – by the people, Congress or states? • Electoral College • Four year term was a compromise between long term and too much power

  12. Ratifying the Constitution • Went into effect June 21, 1788 • Not ratified until May 29, 1790

  13. Anti-Federalists • Anti-Federalists – opposed Constitution • Supported by farmers, laborers and those in-land • Claimed the Constitution was extralegal or not sanctioned by law • Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights • Demanded the Constitution clearly guarantee certain freedoms

  14. Federalists • Federalists – supported Constitution • Supported by merchants, cities and coast areas • Claimed anarchy, or political disorder, would come from a weak national government • Claimed no need for a Bill of Rights, since many states had them already • Eventually give in to Anti-Federalists

  15. Progress Toward Ratification • Added Bill of Rights made ratification easier • New York and Virginia were not the first to ratify • Virginia – June 25, 1788 in a close vote • New York – July 26, 1788 • Hamilton, Madison and John Jay published 80 essays to help pass the Constitution

  16. The Government • Washington as President • John Adams as Vice President • 22 Senators • 59 representatives • March 4, 1789 – first Congress in New York • April 30, 1789 – Washington takes oath of office • 1791 – first ten amendments called Bill of Rights were passed