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,[XG G\P 5. V[gHLG A[hLS. BASIC OF ENGINE. C[T]VM o. VF ,[XGGF V\T[ TF,LDFYL"VM4 CL8 V[gHLG VG[ VF.P;LP V[gHLGG]\ JUL"SZ64 V[gHLGG[ ,UTF 8[SGLS, XaNM lJU[Z[ lJX[ XLBX[P. VM8MDMAF>, s Automobile f. VM8MDMAF>,GM VY"4 VM8M + DMAF>, V[8,[ S[ :JI\ ;\RF,LT JFCGP

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Xg g p 5

,[XG G\P 5

V[gHLG A[hLS

BASIC OF ENGINE


C t vm o
C[T]VM o

  • VF ,[XGGF V\T[ TF,LDFYL"VM4

  • CL8 V[gHLG VG[ VF.P;LP V[gHLGG]\ JUL"SZ64

  • V[gHLGG[ ,UTF 8[SGLS, XaNM lJU[Z[ lJX[ XLBX[P


Xg gp 5

VM8MDMAF>,GM VY"4 VM8M + DMAF>, V[8,[ S[ :JI\ ;\RF,LT JFCGP

Z:TF p5Z NM0TF JFCGM H[JFS[ 8] jCL,Z4 Y|L jCL,Z4 OMZ jCL,Z lJU[Z[P

JFCGM 5[8=M,YL4 0Lh,YL 4 CNG s SMd5[|;LJ G[RZ, U[; f4 VG[ LPG

s ,LSJL0 5|[;Z U[; f YL RF,[ K[P

JFCGM HPV – HGVs C[JL 5[;[gHZ jCLS, v C[JL U]0; jCLS, f CMI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • H[ V[SD OI]V,G]\ UZDL XlSTDF\ VG[ UZDL XlSTG]\ IF\l+S XlSTDF\ ~5F\TZ

    SZ[ K[P T[G[ V[gHLG SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

JQF" XM3S XM3

  • .P;P 1770 O|[gS,LG lGSM,; HM;[O SuGM8 :8LD V[gHLGJF/] JFCG

  • .P;P 1876HD"G V[gHLGLIZ VM8M OMZ :8=MS V[gHLG

  • .P;P 1880 0]UF0" S,FS[" 8] :8=MS V[gHLG

  • .P;P 1892 ~0M<O 0Lh, SMd5|[XG >uGLXGV[gHLG


Cl8 v ghlgg jul sz6 classification of heat engine
CL8 V[gHLGG]\ JUL"SZ6 Classification of Heat Engine

S.I. Engine

:5FS" >uGLXG V[gHLG

C.I. Engine

SMd5|[XG >uGLXG V[gHLG

GAS Engine

U[; V[gHLG

CNG

Engine

SMd5|[:0

G[RZ,

U[;

V[gHLG

LPG

Engine

,LSJL0

5|[;ZF.h

U[;

V[gHLG

2 Stroke

Engine

8] :8=MS

V[gHLG

4 Stroke

Engine

OMZ :8=MS

V[gHLG

2 Stroke

Engine

8] :8=MS

V[gHLG

4 Stroke

Engine

OMZ :8=MS

V[gHLG


V s 8zg sdaxg v ghlg s e c engine f external combustion engine

VF V[gHLGDF\ NCG lS|IF ;L,Lg0ZGF ACFZGF EFUDF\ YFI K[P

pNFP :8LD V[gHLG4 H]GF ,MSMDM8LJ Z[<J[GF V[gHLGP

V[S;8ZG, SdAXG V[gHLG s E.C. Engine f[ External Combustion Engine ]


G8zg sdaxg v ghlg s i c engine f internal combustion engine

VF V[gHLGDF\ NCG lS|IF ;L,Lg0ZGF V\NZGF EFUDF\ YFI K[P

pNFP DM8Z JFCGGF V[gHLGP

>g8ZG, SdAXG V[gHLG sI.C. Engine f[ Internal Combustion Engine ]


Xg gp 5

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ OI]V,G[ ;/UFJJF DF8[ T6BFGL H~Z 50[ K[P

  • T[G]\ ALH] GFD 5[8=M, V[gHLG K[P


Xg gp 5

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ OI]V, 5MTFGL HFT[H4 NAF6YL pt5gG YI[, TF5DFGG[ ,L3[

    ;/U[ K[P VG[ 5FJZ :8=MS AG[ K[P

  • T[G]\ ALH] GFD 0Lh, V[gHLG K[P


Xg gp 5

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ ;SXG4 SMd5|[XG4 5FJZ VG[ V[ShM:8V[ RFZ[I lS|IFVM S|[gS

    XFO8GF V[S VF\8FDF\ s 360 00LU|L f 5]ZL Y> V[SJFZ XlST D/[ K[P

  • NFPTP DM5[04 :S]8Z4 ZL1FF


Xg gp 5

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ ;SXG4 SMd5|[XG4 5FJZ VG[ V[ShM:8V[ RFZ[I lS|IFVM S|[gS

    XFO8GF A[ VF\8FDF\ s 72000LU|L f 5]ZL Y> V[SJFZ XlST D/[ K[P

  • NFPTP DM8Z4 SFZ4 8=S4 8=[S8Z4 A; lJU[Z[GF V[gHLGP


L lg0zgl um9j6 d ha s according to arrangement of cylinder f
;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 D]HA sAccording to arrangement of cylinderf

  • !P .G ,F.G ;L,Lg0Z V[gHLG [In Line Engine ] v

  • H[ D<8L ;L,Lg0Z V[gHLGDF\ A3F ;L,Lg0Z V[S ,F>GDF\ VFJ[,F CMI T[G[ >G

    ,F>G V[gHLG SC[ K[P

  • NFPTP HL54 8=S4 A; lJU[Z[GF V[gHLGP


L lg0zgl um9j6 d ha s according to arrangement of cylinder f1
;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 D]HA sAccording to arrangement of cylinderf

  • !P .G ,F.G ;L,Lg0Z V[gHLG [In Line Engine ] v


L lg0zgl um9j6 d ha s according to arrangement of cylinder f2
;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 D]HA sAccording to arrangement of cylinderf

  • ZP V X[5 V[gHLG [ V Shape Engine ]v

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ ;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 V\U|[HL D]/F1FZ

    VVFSFZ[ 600 0LU|LGF B}6[ SZ[, CMI K[P

  • NFPTP V 6, V 8lJU[Z[P


L lg0zgl um9j6 d ha s according to arrangement of cylinder f3
;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 D]HA sAccording to arrangement of cylinderf

  • ZP V X[5 V[gHLG [ V Shape Engine ]v


L lg0zgl um9j6 d ha s according to arrangement of cylinder f4
;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 D]HA sAccording to arrangement of cylinderf

  • #P VM5Mh0 ;L,Lg0Z V[gHLG [ Opposed Cylinder Engine ]

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ ;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 CMZLH[g8,

    sVF0Lf V[SALHFGL lJ~w3 AFH] SZ[, CMI VG[

    V[SH S|[gS XFO8 CMI4 T[G[ VM5MH0 ;L,Lg0Z

    V[gHLG SC[ K[P


L lg0zgl um9j6 d ha s according to arrangement of cylinder f5
;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 D]HA sAccording to arrangement of cylinderf

  • #P VM5Mh0 ;L,Lg0Z V[gHLG [ Opposed Cylinder Engine ]


Xg gp 5

  • $P CMZLH[g8, V[gHLG [ Horizantal Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ ;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 HDLGG[ ;DF\TZsVF0Lf SZ[, CMI K[P

  • NFPTP CLZM CMg0F DM8Z ;FIS,G]\ V[gHLGP


Xg gp 5

  • 5P J8L"S, V[gHLG [ Vertical Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ ;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 HDLGGL ;5F8LG[ ,\A~5[ SZ[, CMI K[P

  • NFPTP V[GOL, A],[84:8[XGZL 0Lh, V[gHLG lJU[Z[P


Xg gp 5

  • 5P J8L"S, V[gHLG

    [ Vertical Engine ]


Xg gp 5

  • &P Z[0LI, V[gHLG [ Radial Engine ]v

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ ;L,Lg0ZGL UM9J6 Z[0LI,L

  • s JT]"/FSFZ[ f SZ[, CMI VG[ T[GL DwIDF\ V[SH

  • S|[gS XFO8 CMI K[P

  • NFPTP V[ZM %,[GGF V[gHLGP


Xg gp 5

  • !P 5[8=M, V[gHLG [ Petrol Engine ] v

VF V[gHLGDF\ OI]V, sA/T6f TZLS[ 5[8=M,GM p5IMU YFI K[P

NFPTP :S]8Z4SFZ lJU[Z[GF V[gHLGP


Xg gp 5

  • ZP 0Lh, V[gHLG [ Diesel Engine ] v

VF V[gHLGDF\ OI]V, sA/T6f TZLS[ 0Lh,GM p5IMU YFI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • #P U[; V[gHLG [ Gas Engine ] v

VF V[gHLGDF\ OI]V, sA/T6f TZLS[ CNG – LPG U[; GM p5IMU YFI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • !P I C[0 V[gHLG[ I Head Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ AgG[ JF<J ;L,Lg0Z C[0

    DF\ VFJ[, CMI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • ZP F C[0 V[gHLG[ F Head Engine ]

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ V[S JF<J ;L,Lg0Z C[0DF\ VG[

    ALHM JF<J ;L,Lg0Z a,MSDF\ VFJ[, CMI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • #P L C[0 V[gHLG[ L Head Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ AgG[ JF<J ;L,Lg0Z a,MSDF\ V[SH

    AFH]V[ VFJ[, CMI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • $PTC[0 V[gHLG[ T Head Engine ]v

  • VF V[gHLGDF\ AgG[ JF<J ;L,Lg0Z a,MSDF\

  • ;L,Lg0ZGL ;FD ;FD[GL AFH]V[ VFJ[, CMI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • !P SMg:8g8 :5L0 V[gHLG[ Constant Speed Engine ]v

  • V[S3FZL UlTV[ RF,TF V[gHLG NFPTP :8[XGZL V[gHLGM


Xg gp 5

  • ZP J[ZLV[A, :5L0 V[gHLG [ Variable Speed Engine ] v

  • H]NL H]NL h05[ RF,TF V[gHLG NFPTPDM8Z JFCGGF V[gHLG

  • ,M :5L0 V[gHLG[ Low Speed Engine ] v

  • 90YL 200 RPM :5L0 3ZFJTF V[gHLG


Xg gp 5

  • DL0LID :5L0 V[gHLG [ Medium Speed Engine ] v

    200YL 1000 RPM :5L0 3ZFJTF V[gHLG

  • CF> :5L0 V[gHLG[ High Speed Engine ] v

  • 1000 YL J3] RPM :5L0 3ZFJTF V[gHLG


Xg gp 5

  • V[Z S]<0 V[gHLG [ Air Coold Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLG CJFYL 9\0F YFI K[P

  • NFPTP DM5[04 :S]8Z4 DM8Z ;FIS,4 ZL1FF lJU[Z[GF V[gHFGP


Xg gp 5

  • JM8Z S]<0 V[gHLG [ Water Coold Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLG 5F6LYL 9\0F YFI K[P

  • NFPTP HL54 8=[S8Z4 8=S4 DM8Z SFZ lJU[Z[GF V[gHFGP


Xg gp 5

  • :8=MS D]HA s According to stroke of engine f v

    !P 8] :8=MS V[gHLG ZP OMZ :8=MS V[gHLG #P ZM8ZL V[gHLG


Xg gp 5

H[ T[ 1F[+GF J5ZFX sp5IMUf D]HA

  • s According to used of engine f

  • :8[XGZL V[gHLG [ Stationery Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLG V[SH HuIFV[ OL8 SZLG[ p5IMUDF\ ,[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

  • NFPTP S]JF q GC[ZDF\YL 5F6L B[\RJF4 HGZ[8Z ;[8GF V[gHLG lJ[P


Xg gp 5

H[ T[ 1F[+GF J5ZFX sp5IMUf D]HA

  • s According to used of engine f

  • VM8MDM8LJ V[gHLG [ Automotive Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGGM p5IMU VM8MDMAF>,DF\ SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

  • NFPTP NZ[S JFCGGF V[gHLGP


Xg gp 5

H[ T[ 1F[+GF J5ZFX sp5IMUf D]HA

  • s According to used of engine f

  • ,MSMDM8LJ V[gHLG [ Locomotive Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGGM Z[<J[DF\ p5IMU YTM CMI K[P

  • NFPTP Z[[<J[GF SM,;F 5F6LYL RF,TF :8LD V[gHLGP


Xg gp 5

H[ T[ 1F[+GF J5ZFX sp5IMUf D]HA

s According to used of engine f

  • DZLG V[gHLG [ Marin Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGGM p5IMU 5F6LDF\ RF,TL AM8G[ R,FJJF YTM CMI SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

H[ T[ 1F[+GF J5ZFX sp5IMUf D]HA

s According to used of engine f

  • V[Z S|FO8 V[gHLG [ Air Craft Engine ] v

  • VF V[gHLGGM p5IMU V[ZM%,[GDF\ YTM CMI K[P


Xg gp 5

  • T.D.C. s8LP0LP;LPf 8M5 0[0 ;[g8Z[ Top Dead Center ] v

  • V[gHLGGF ;L,Lg0ZDF\ l5:8G HIF\ ;]3L J3]DF\ J3] p5Z H> XSTM CMI T[ :YFGG[

  • T.D.C. s8LP0LP;LPf 8M5 0[0 ;[g8Z SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

  • B.D.C. sALP0LP;LPf AM8D 0[0 ;[g8Z[ Bottom Dead Center ] v

    V[gHLGGF ;L,Lg0ZDF\ l5:8G HIF\ ;]3L J3]DF\ J3] GLR[ H> XSTM CMI T[ :YFGG[

    B.D.C.sALP0LP;LPf AM8D 0[0 ;[g8Z SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

  • :8=MS [ Stroke ] v

    l5:8G V[gHLGGF ;L,Lg0ZDF\ l5:8G T.D.C. YL B.D.C.VYJF B.D.C.

    YL T.D.C.JrR[GF V\TZG[ :8=MS SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

  • ;FIS, [ Cycle ] v

    V[gHLGGF ;L,Lg0ZDF\ RFZ S|lDS lS|IFVM ;SXG4 SMd5|[XG4 5FJZ VG[ V[ShM:8

    l5:8GGL UlT J0[ 5]ZL Y> XlST pt5gG YFI K[P T[G[ ;FIS, SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

  • :J[%8 JM<I]D [ Swept Volume ] v

    V[gHLGGF ;L,Lg0ZDF\ l5:8G T.D.C.YL B.D.C.HJFYL ;L,Lg0ZDF\ H[ SN

    sJM<I]Df D/[ T[G[ :J[%8 JM<I]D SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

  • S,LIZg; JM<I]D [ Clearence Volume ] v

    V[gHLGGF ;L,Lg0ZDF\ l5:8G HIFZ[ T.D.C.5Z CMI tIFZ[ l5:8GGF C[0 p5Z

    GL HuIFGF SNG[ S,LIZg; JM<I]D SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

  • SMd5|[XG Z[lXIM [ Compression Ratio ] v

  • ;L,Lg0ZDF\ l5:8G B.D.C.5Z CMI tIFZ[ ;L,Lg0ZG]\ SN VG[ l5:8G T.D.C.

  • 5Z CMI tIFZ[ ;L,Lg0ZG]\ SN JrR[GF U]6MTZG[ SMd5|[XG Z[lXIM sNAF6GM U]6M

  • TZf SC[ K[P

  • ;]+4 SMd5|[XG Z[lXIM =:J[%8 JM<I]D + S,LIZg; JM<I]D

  • S,LIZg; JM<I]D

  • C.R. = Vs + Vc

  • Vc


Xg gp 5

  • CM;" 5FJZ [ Horse Power ] v

  • SAE 5w3lTDF\ v 33000 Lbs s5Fpg0fGF JHG s,M0fG[ V[S O]8 p\R]

    SZJF V[S lDGL8DF\ H[ XlST HM>V[ T[G[ V[S CM;" 5FJZ SC[ K[P

  • D[8=LS 5w3lTDF\ v 4500 Kg slSPU|FfGF JHG s,M0fG[ V[S DL8Z p\R]

    SZJF H[ XlST s5FJZf HM>V[ T[G[ V[S CM;" 5FJZ SC[ K[P


Xg gp 5

  • A|[S CM;" 5FJZ [ BHP ] v

  • V[gHLGGF VFp85]8 wJFZF H[ 5FJZ O,FI jCL, p5Z D/[ K[PT[G[ A|[S CM;" 5FJZ

  • SC[ K[P BHP = IHP - FHP

  • >g0LS[8[0 CM;" 5FJZ [ IHP ] v

    V[gHLGGL V\NZ pt5gG YTF 5FJZG[ >g0LS[8[0 CM;" 5FJZ IHPSC[ K[P

    IHP = BHP + FHP

  • lO|SXG, CM;" 5FJZ [ FHP ] v

    lO|SXGs3QF"6f wJFZF V[gHLG H[ 5FJZ 3]DFJ[ K[P T[G[ lOSZXG CM;" 5FJZ SC[ K[P

    FHP = IHP - BHP


Xg gp 5
5|`GM

  • .g8ZG, SdAXG V[gHLG V[8,[ X]\ m

  • :5FS" .uGLXG V[gHLG V[8,[ X] m

  • :8=MS V[8,[ X]\ m

  • ;FIS, V[8,[ X]\ m

  • S,LIZg; JM<I]D V[8,[ X]\ m

  • :8[XGZL 0Lh, V[gHLGGF p5IMU H6FJM m

  • .G ,F.G V[gHLG V[8,[ X]\ m

  • A[|S CM;" 5FJZ V[8,[ X]\ m


P5 cfz o
p5;\CFZ o

  • VFH[ VF ,[XGDF\YL4

  • CL8 V[gHLG VG[ VF.P;LP V[gHLGG]\ JUL"SZ64

  • V[gHLGG[ ,UTF 8[SGLS, XaNM lJU[Z[ lJX[ XLbIFP

  • CJ[ 5KLGF ,[GXDF\ OMZ :8=MS ;FIS, V[gHLG lJX[ XLBLX]P


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