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Chapter 9. Motivation and Emotion Chapters 11 and 12. Motivation and Emotion. Motive Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior Emotion Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior. Motivational Concepts.

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motivation and emotion
Motivation and Emotion
  • Motive
    • Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior
  • Emotion
    • Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior
instincts and evolutionary behavior
Instincts and Evolutionary Behavior
  • Inborn, goal-directed behavior that is characteristic of an entire species and unlearned
  • Human behavior is not easily explained by instincts because
    • Most important human behavior is learned
    • Human behavior is rarely inflexible
  • Human behavior is directed by both physiological needs AND by psychological wants
drive reduction theory
Drive-Reduction Theory
  • Theory that took the place of instinct theory
  • Drive
    • A state of tension or arousal caused by bodily needs
  • Drive Reduction Theory states that motivated behavior is an attempt to reduce a drive and return the body to homeostasis
  • Sequence of events: lack of homeostasis, need, drive, motivation to act, homeostasis
  • Primary drive: Unlearned drive, such as hunger, based on a physiological state
  • Secondary drive: Learned drive, such as ambition
arousal theory
Arousal Theory
  • People are motivated to seek an optimal level of arousal for a given moment
  • Yerkes-Dodson law
    • States that there is an optimal level or arousal for best performance on any task
    • The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance
incentive theory
Incentive Theory
  • External stimuli that prompt goal-directed behavior
  • We are often unaware of the incentive
  • Examples
    • Aroma of food may cause us to eat even when not hungry
    • Advertisements can lead us to buy a product
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
  • Intrinsic motivation
    • Motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself
    • Children playing is an example
  • Extrinsic motivation
    • Behavior is performed in order to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment
    • A bonus program is an example
    • Dangers of providing extrinsic motivation for intrinsically motivated activities?
maslow s hierarchy of motives
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motives
  • Physiological needs
  • Safety needs
  • Belongingness needs
  • Esteem needs
  • Self-actualization needs
biological factors neurological
Biological Factors - Neurological
  • Hunger appears to be regulated by regions in the hypothalamus
    • Lateral hypothalamus (LH) acts as a hunger center, triggering the onset of eating
    • Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) acts as a satiety center, stopping eating behavior
    • Paraventricular nucleus(PVN) influences the drive to eat specific foods
  • In addition, areas in cortex and spinal cord also play a role
biological factors chemical
Biological Factors - Chemical
  • Changes in blood glucose level, fats, carbohydrates, and insulin signal need for food
  • Leptin, a hormone released by fat cells, can signal satiety
  • Receptors in the stomach and a hormone released by small intestine also signal brain about satiety, but it takes 20-30 minutes! EAT SLOWLY!
biological factors genetics
Biological Factors - Genetics
  • OB-1/Chromosome 15
    • 15th chromosome may carry a gene that predisposes some people to obesity
  • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    • How quickly you burn calories may be genetically influenced
  • Set Point Theory
    • Body has a “set” weight it wants to be.
    • Body has a set number of fat cells which shrink with weight loss and enlarge with weight gain, but the number does not change.
    • Efforts to go below this are seen by body as a threat, and body will compensate by slowing metabolic rate
cultural and environmental factors
Cultural and Environmental Factors
  • Responses to food are governed by learning and social conditioning
    • For example, time of day can trigger the body to become hungry
    • Even the SMELL of food may trigger biological processes that instigate hunger!
  • Culture also influences what we choose to eat and how much we consume
    • Social facilitation – we eat when others are eating
    • Unit bias – what is a “serving size?”
eating disorders
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa
    • Intense fear of weight gain
    • Distorted body image
    • Refusal to maintain minimal normal body weight
    • Absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles (for women)
  • About 1% of adolescents afflicted
  • Approximately 90% of those are white upper- and middle-class females
eating disorders1
Eating Disorders
  • Bulimia nervosa
    • Recurrent episodes of binge eating
    • Recurrent behaviors to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting
    • Behaviors must occur at least twice a week for three months
    • Body shape and weight overly influence self-image
    • Symptoms occur independent of anorexia
  • About 1-2% of female adolescents afflicted
  • Dying to be Thin Clip (“Ana” and “Mia”)
  • Binge Eating Disorder – binging without purging
  • Considered by U.S. Surgeon General to be the most pressing health problem today
  • An estimated 66% of Americans are obese
  • Obesity can lead to increased risk for
    • Hypertension
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Diabetes
    • Sleep apnea
  • Tendency may be inherited
  • Both internal and external cues can trigger the thirst drive
    • Internal cues include level of fluids inside body cells and amount of fluids outside body cells
    • External cues can include advertisements and weather conditions
biological factors
Biological Factors
  • Hypothalamus controls the release of luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland, which in turn controls the release of androgens and estrogens.
  • Testosterone
    • Important in both men and women in early development
    • Men and women seem to need some to be interested in sex, but as long as it is there its role in regulating sexual activity is minimal
  • Estrogens
    • Female hormones that peak during ovulation
    • Interestingly, when charting sexual activity, women are more receptive to sex during ovulation
  • Pheromones
    • Scents secreted which can promote sexual readiness, particularly in animals

The Psychology of Sex

  • Human sexual motivation is much more dependent on experience and learning than on biology
  • There are many reasons why people have sex
  • External Stimuli
    • Both men and women tend to become aroused when exposed to sexually explicit material
    • Repeated exposure to the same stimuli lessens arousal over time
  • Imagined Stimuli
    • Sexual arousal while dreaming in both sexes
    • Sexual fantasies are prevalent, but may not be indicative of desires in real life

The Psychology of Sex

  • The Kinsey Reports
    • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948)
    • Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
    • Kinsey Scale and human sexuality (0 to 6 the “X” was added later for asexual)
    • Controversial methods?
      • Prison population
      • Male prostitutes
    • 10% ??

The Psychology of Sex

  • Biological influences:
  • sexual maturity
  • sex hormones
  • sexual orientation
  • Psychological influences:
  • exposure to stimulating
  • conditions
  • sexual fantasies

Sexual motivation

  • Social-cultural influences:
  • family and society values
  • religious and personal values
  • cultural expectations
  • media
adolescent sexuality
Adolescent Sexuality
  • Teen Pregnancy
    • US has a relatively high rate of teen pregnancy and abortion
    • Some explanations include a lack of knowledge about sex and birth control, substance use, and lack of media reinforcement of protected sex
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections/STDs
    • For reasons listed above, STIs are also prevalent amongst young people (2/3 of all new infections occur in population under 25)
    • Many people do not know the risks of certain sexual practices and do not think about the number of partners their partner has had
sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation
  • Refers to the direction of an individual’s sexual interest
    • Heterosexual
      • Sexual attraction to opposite sex
    • Homosexual
      • Sexual attraction to same sex
    • Bisexual
      • Sexual attraction to both sexes
  • Approximately 3-4% of men and 1-2% of women are gay/lesbian.
  • Sexuality is enduring over time and cannot be “changed”
  • Women’s sexuality seems to be more “fluid” than men’s (“erotic plasticity”)
  • Nature and nurture explain human sexuality
secondary drives stimulus motives
Secondary Drives: Stimulus Motives
  • Stimulus motives push us to investigate or to change our environment
  • Example stimulus motives include:
    • Exploration and curiosity
      • E.g. Where does that path lead? How does the internet work?
      • Why? An emotion? An acceptable expression of sex drive? Part of the drive to find the meaning of life?
    • Manipulation and contact
      • E.g. DO NOT TOUCH signs – why are they necessary?
      • The need to touch, handle, or play with objects to feel satisfied.
harlow s monkeys
Harlow’s Monkeys
  • Harry Harlow (1958) wanted to find out why infant monkeys bonded with their mother.
  • Was the bond driven by a need for food (nursing) or something else?
    • Harlow’s experiment
    • Impact of denying infant monkeys physical comfort from their mother
  • Illustrates contact motive
other motives social motives
Other Motives: Social Motives
  • Social motives are those which involve how we are driven to relate to others. They include the following:
    • Aggression
    • Achievement
    • Affiliation
  • David McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory (3 Needs Theory; learned Needs Theory)
    • Achievement (nAch) – seek moderately challenging tasks where they feel accomplished AND successful
    • Affiliation (nAff) – Need harmonious relationships with others to feel accepted and valued
    • Power (nPow)
      • Personal power – want to control others (seen as negative)
      • Institutional Power – like organizing people to achieve the common goals
social motives aggression
Social Motives: Aggression
  • Intent is a key element of aggression – behavior is aimed at DOING HARM to others
  • Why are we aggressive?
    • Aggressive behavior may be innate, although learning clearly plays a role
    • Frustration-Aggression Theory?
    • Social Learning?
  • Aggression and culture
    • Collectivist cultures are less aggressive than individualistic cultures
    • Crime in the US?
  • Gender and aggression
    • Males are more physically aggressive
    • Nature…or nurture?
social motives achievement
Social Motives: Achievement
  • Motivation to excel at a task
  • Desire is for achievement for its own sake
  • Work and Family Orientation Scale (WOFO)
    • Work orientation, mastery, competitiveness
    • Highest GPA – high mastery and work orientation, lower competitiveness – WHY?
social motives affiliation
Social Motives: Affiliation
  • Motivation to be with others
  • Rats, monkeys and humans in stressful situations all feel a reduction in anxiety and fear when in the presence of another member of their species
  • Evolutionary value? Learned behavior?
defining emotion
Defining Emotion
  • Emotion includes the following:
    • A subjective conscious experience or cognitive component
    • Bodily or physiological arousal
    • Overt or behavioral expressions
  • Emotional reactions are linked with the Autonomic Nervous System
    • Sympathetic/parasympathetic NS
    • Autonomic responses accompanying emotion are controlled by the brain
measuring emotional responses
Measuring Emotional Responses
  • Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
    • GSR measures increased electrical conductivity of skin that occurs when sweat glands increase activity
    • GSR used to measure autonomic arousal and therefore emotional reactions
  • Polygraph/Lie Detector
    • Assumes there is a link between lying and emotions
    • Measures respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and GSR
    • Does not detect lies, but rather nervousness
    • Only accurate about 2/3 of the time – some people do not become nervous when they lie!
basic emotions
Basic Emotions
  • Plutchik proposed that there are eight basic emotions
  • Fear
  • Surprise
  • Sadness
  • Disgust
  • Anger
  • Anticipation
  • Joy
  • Acceptance
  • Other (secondary) emotions are the

composites of primary emotions

    • Surprise + Sadness = Disappointment
    • Fear + Acceptance = Submission
basic emotions1
Basic Emotions
  • Some have criticized Plutchik’s model as applying only to English-speakers
  • Revised model of basic emotions includes:
    • Happiness
    • Surprise
    • Sadness
    • Fear
    • Disgust
    • Anger
theories of emotion
Theories of Emotion
  • James-Lange theory
    • Environmental stimuli bring on physiological changes that we interpret as emotions
    • EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.  You notice these physiological changes and interpret them as your body's preparation for a fearful situation.  You then experience fear.
theories of emotion1
Theories of Emotion
  • Cannon-Bard theory
    • Environmental stimuli elicit emotions and bodily responses simultaneously
    • EXAMPLE:  You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.  At the same time as these physiological changes occur you also experience the emotion of fear.
contemporary theories of emotion
Contemporary Theories of Emotion
  • Schachter-Singer Theory/2-Factor
    • Environment gives us clues that help us interpret physiological reaction
    • EXAMPLE:  You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.  Upon noticing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself.  This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of fear.
contemporary theories of emotion1
Contemporary Theories of Emotion
  • Izard’s Facial Feedback Theory
    • Cognitive feedback is NOT necessary: emotion provoked by the faces/body posture that results from an environmental stimulus
    • Based on five different “universal” facial expressions: happiness, anger, disgust, sadness, and fear-surprise
    • EXAMPLE:  You are walking down a dark alley late at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.  You make a shocked face and the movement of these muscles sends signals to your brain to perceive this as fear.
nonverbal communication of emotion
Nonverbal Communication of Emotion
  • Voice quality
  • Facial expression and Ekman’s work
  • Body language
    • Posture
    • The way we move communicates information
  • Personal space
  • Explicit acts
    • Slamming doors
    • Destroying stuff
  • Emblems
facial expression activity
Facial Expression Activity
  • Use the list of six basic emotions below to label the faces of both the human and robot faces on your worksheet. You will use each of the six once for each set of faces.
          • Happiness
          • Sadness
          • Fear
          • Surprise
          • Anger
          • Disgust
gender and emotion
Gender and Emotion
  • Men and women feel emotions equally, but express them differently
  • Men and women may experience different emotions in the same situation
  • Anger
    • Men tend to direct their anger outward
    • Women tend to direct their anger inward
  • Women are more skilled at understanding nonverbal components of emotion
culture and emotion
Culture and Emotion
  • Expression of emotion can be influenced by cultural norms
  • Some emotional displays are universal
  • Display rules
    • Culture-specific rules that govern how, when, and why expressions of emotion are appropriate
    • Etre et Avoir clip (1:11)
  • Intensification, deintensification, masking, neutralizing
stress and health
Stress and Health
  • Stress is the manner in which we respond to events perceived as threatening or challenging
    • Stress has an impact on our mood, our behavior and our health
    • Behavioral medicine integrates what we know of human behavior and medicine to better understand health and disease
    • Health psychology involves the contribution of psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine
stress response
Stress Response
  • Cannon’s fight-or-flight response
    • Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from adrenal glands
    • Sympathetic nervous system kicks in
  • Hypothalamus and pituitary control cortisols released from adrenal cortex
  • Withdrawal
  • “Tend and befriend” (Shelley Taylor)
  • Gender and stress
    • Women more likely to nurture and band together
    • Men more likely to withdraw and turn to alcohol
  • Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    • Phase 1: Alarm (prepare to cope)
    • Phase 2: Resistance (actual coping)
    • Phase 3: Exhaustion (resources depleted)
sources of stress stressors
Sources of Stress: Stressors
  • Catastrophes and PTSD
  • Change
    • Holmes and Rahe and the SRRS
    • Even “good” changes can be stressful!
  • Pressure: need to “step it up”
  • Frustration: being prevented from reaching goal
  • Conflict: simultaneous existence of incompatible demands/goals
    • Approach-approach – equally attracted to two appealing goals
    • Approach-avoidance – both attracted and repelled by the same goal
    • Avoidance-avoidance – equally repulsed by two possibilities
stress and health1
Stress and Health
  • “Type A” vs. “Type B” (Friedman and Rosenman)
    • Type A: reactive, competitive, impatient, motivated, aggressive and easily angered – susceptible to CHD
    • Type B: easy going, mellow – much less susceptible to CHD
  • Pessimism makes you twice as likely to develop CHD
  • Depression also increases CHD risk
  • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
    • Studies relationship between nervous, endocrine and immune systems
    • Stress and AIDS
    • Stress and cancer
coping with stress
Coping with Stress
  • Perceived feelings of control
  • Optimism
  • Social support
  • Exercise
  • Relaxation/Meditation
  • Biofeedback
  • Spirituality