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Agronomy PowerPoint Presentation

Agronomy

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Agronomy

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  1. Agronomy 1. “the science of growing plants from creating on-farm opportunities to environmental protection and ecosystem management” 2. “the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber”

  2. 3. “Science of agriculture that deals with all aspects of field crop production and soil management” 4. “The word derived from Greek word “agros” meaning fields and “nomos” meaning management indicating crop production and soil management on scientific approach”

  3. Principals of Agronomy/Crop Production • Cultural practices • Seed and variety • Irrigation • Manuring • Plant protection • Post harvest management

  4. Cultural Practices 1. Tillage • Primary tillage (preparatory tillage) • Secondary tillage (seed bed preparation) • Tertiary tillage (Interculture)

  5. 2. Sowing Method • Ridge sowing • Line sowing • Pit planting

  6. Seed and Variety • Varieties according to sowing time • Seed rate • Depth of sowing

  7. Irrigation • Irrigation requirement • Method of irrigation

  8. Manuring • Rate • Method of application • Green manuring • Crop rotation

  9. Plant Protection • Weed management • Insect management • Disease management

  10. Post Harvest Management

  11. Requirements Light Water Air Essential minerals Anchorage Favorable climatic conditions How plants grow

  12. Plant utilizes raw material for food manufacture through photosynthesis CO2 + H2OC6H12O6 proteins, fats, starch, cellulose

  13. Essential nutrients (C, H, O) 18% of plant weight Water 80% Mineral constituents 2%

  14. 16 essential nutrients Primary nutrients, N, P, K Secondary nutrients, Ca, Mg, S Micro-nutrients Fe, Zn, Co, Cl, Mn, B

  15. The soil that feeds plants

  16. Physical properties of soil to regulate productivity

  17. Soil chemical properties • Organic matter • Cation exchange capacity (CEC) • Soil reaction (pH) • C:N ratio (Carbon to Nitrogen) • Salinity (EC)

  18. The living part of soil • Bacteria • Algae • Protozoa • Fungi • Insects • Earthworms • Azotobactor • Clostridium

  19. Fertilizer-food for the hungry plant • 30-50% contribution toward yield • Improve quality of the produce • Resistance to cold/water stress • Increase/decrease plant resistance to diseases/insects

  20. What is fertilizer • Plant foods • Supplement the soil supply of essential nutrients • Defined as a substance used for the purpose of supplying one or more of the elements essential for growth.

  21. Fertilizer terms • Straight fertilizer; contain single nutrient, examples are Urea, SSP, TSP, SOP, MOP • Compound fertilizer; contain two or more elements, examples are DAP, NPK

  22. Expression of nutrients • N= elemental form, N on %age by weight basis • P= P2O5, • Px2.29= P2O5 • P2O5x0.44=P • K=K2O • Kx1.2=K2O • K2Ox0.83=K

  23. Fertilizers available in Pakistan • Urea • DAP • SSP • TSP • Potassium sulphate • Potassium chloride • NPK • Ammonium Nitrate

  24. Special fertilizers • Polyphosphates • Slow release fertilizers: concept based on 2 imp. points • Certain nutrients particularly N and S can leach beyond root zone, slow release increase their efficiency • Certain crops require to be fertilized frequently—reduce their requirement e.g.

  25. Super coated urea (SCU)-for rice • Urea super granule (USG) • Liquid fertilizers • Fertilizer pesticide mixtures

  26. Mechanism of nutrient uptake Diffusion Mass flow Root interception