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Warehousing Equipment. Tompkins et al., “Facilities Planning”, John Wiley & Sons, 1996: Chapters 6, 9 College-Industry Council on Material Handling Education: Material Handling Equipment Taxonomy: http://www.mhia.org/et/mhe_tax.htm. The role of equipment in warehouse operations.

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warehousing equipment

Warehousing Equipment

Tompkins et al., “Facilities Planning”, John Wiley & Sons, 1996: Chapters 6, 9

College-Industry Council on Material Handling Education: Material Handling Equipment Taxonomy: http://www.mhia.org/et/mhe_tax.htm

the role of equipment in warehouse operations
The role of equipment in warehouse operations
  • Reduce cost (labor + space)
    • enhance space utilization by, e.g.,
      • enabling the exploitation of the vertical dimension of the facility
      • allowing for denser packing
    • allow for more efficient order-picking by, e.g.,
      • increasing the sku density
      • supporting the automated transfer of material from storage to sorting and consolidation area
  • Enhance responsiveness
    • increase the throughput of the facility, e.g.,
      • increasing the sku density
      • establishing a more ergonomic environment/arrangement for the warehouse operators
      • facilitating the parallelization of order picking
      • by parallelizing the tasks of order-picking and replensihment
the role of equipment in warehouse operations cont
The role of equipment in warehouse operations (cont.)
  • Maintain Quality of Product and Operations
    • provide an orderly storage environment
    • provide efficient ways for product tracing and identification
    • provide safe and secure material handling
    • facilitate order sortation and consolidation
    • establish and maintain a controlled environment e.g.,
      • temperature control
      • access control
equipment classification tompkins et al pgs 170 173
Equipment Classification(Tompkins et. al., pgs 170-173)
  • Containers & Unitizing Equipment
  • Storage and Retrieval Equipment
    • Unit Load
    • Small Load
  • Conveyors
  • Warehouse docks and dock-related equipment
  • Automatic Identification and Communication Equipment
for detailed functional descriptions discussion on supported efficiencies and pictures
For detailed functional descriptions, discussion on supported efficiencies, and pictures
  • College-Industry Council on Material Handling Education: Material Handling Equipment Taxonomy: http://www.mhia.org/et/mhe_tax.htm
  • Tompkins et al., “Facilities Planning”, John Wiley & Sons, 1996: Chapters 6, 9
pallet storage modes
Pallet Storage Modes
  • Block Stacking
  • Rack Storage
    • Single-Deep
    • Double-Deep
    • Drive-In/Through
    • Pallet Flow
    • Unit Load AS/RS
    • etc.
block stacking or floor storage
Block Stacking (or Floor Storage)

Lane Height

Lane Depth

(3-deep)

Lanes

  • An efficient storage mode when
  • there are multiple pallets per SKU;
  • inventory is turned in large increments, I.e., several loads of the same SKU are received or withdrawn at one time.
  • Main problems:
  • Loss of space due to “honeycombing”
  • not effective utilization of the vertical dimension of the facility
selective or single deep or simple pallet rack
Selective or Single-Deep or Simple Pallet Rack
  • The “benchmark” storage mode
  • Due to rack supports, each pallet is independently accessible (i.e. it supports totally random access)
  • Trade-off: too many aisles => inefficient space utilization
double deep rack
Double-deep rack
  • Two selective racks placed back-to-back => 2-deep lanes
  • Each lane dedicated to one SKU => space loss in case of SKU’s with odd number of pallets
  • Less aisle space required (upto 50% savings in aisle space)
  • Trade-off: More work and/or specialized equipment for retrieving
other pallet rack types
Other pallet rack types
  • Drive-In/Through rack: 5-10 loads deep
    • Better space utilization
    • More difficult, even dangerous retrieval
  • Pallet flow rack: up to 8 pallets deep
    • The rack shelves are slanted and have rollers, and therefore, every time a pallet is retrieved from a lane, the pallet behind it takes its position.
    • Allows for simultaneous picking and restocking
    • Supports FIFO operation
    • Typically used in high-throughput facilities
  • Cantilever rack:
    • Supports long items like timber and pipes
unit load retrieval equipment
Unit-Load Retrieval Equipment
  • Key Differentiation factors:
    • aisle width requirements
    • lift height/weight capacity
    • Lane depth they can reach
    • degree of automation
    • capital expense
  • Major types
    • Walkie Stacker
    • Counterbalance Lift Truck
    • Narrow Aisle Vehicles
    • Automated Storage/Retrieval Machines
small load storage and retrieval equipment
Small Load Storage and Retrieval Equipment
  • Operator-to-Stock (or Man-to-Part or in-the-aisle) system: the operator travels to the storage location to retrieve material
  • Stock-to-Operator (or Part-to-Man or end-of-aisle) system: the material is mechanically transported to the operator for retrieval
  • Advantages of STO:
    • higher productivity
    • easier supervision
    • better item security and protection
  • Disadvantages of STO:
    • more expensive
    • more maintenance
    • more difficult to reconfigure
operator to stock storage equipment
Operator-to-Stock Storage Equipment
  • Bin Shelving
  • Modular Storage Drawers in Cabinets
  • Carton Flow Racks
  • Mobile Storage
  • All the above equipment can also be arranged in mezzanines to get a better exploitation of the building cube.
operator to stock retrieval equipment
Operator-to-Stock Retrieval Equipment
  • Picking Cart
  • Order Picker Truck (for higher placed loads)
  • Person-aboard Automated Storage/Retrieval Machine
    • captive aisle
    • free roaming
  • (Robotic Retrieval)
stock to operator equipment
Stock-to-Operator Equipment
  • Carousels
    • Horizontal
    • Vertical
    • Independently Rotating Racks
  • Miniload Automated Storage and Retrieval Machine
  • Automatic Dispenser
  • Productivity gains
    • Allow for extensive parallelization of order retrievals
    • Focus on extracting rather than traveling and searching
conveyors
Conveyors
  • (Flat) Belt
  • Roller
  • Telescoping Belt
  • Chute
  • Sorting
    • Deflector
    • Push Diverter
    • Pop-up Skewed Wheels
    • Pop-up Roller
    • Tilt tray
  • Remarks:
    • Conveyors change the economics of travel.
    • They can partition physically the warehouse into zones
warehouse docks and dock related equipment
Warehouse docks and dock-related equipment
  • Warehouse docks: The facility interface with the shipping carriers
  • Dock configurations and dimensioning
equipment facilitating the interfacing between docks and shipping carriers
Equipment facilitating the interfacing between docks and shipping carriers
  • Dock levelers: compensate the height difference between the carrier platform and the dock door
    • mobile yard ramps
    • permanent adjustable dock boards
    • truck levelers
    • scissors-type lifting docks
  • Bumper pads: absorb the shock from the impact of the shipping trailer with the dock walls (laminated rubber cushions)
      • 40,000 lb load traveling 4 mph => 150,000 lb force
  • Dock shelter: a flexible shield that when engaged to the carrier provides a closed-environment interface between it and the inner area of the warehouse
    • energy savings, increased safety, product protection, etc.
automatic identification and communication equipment
Automatic Identification and Communication Equipment
  • Permits real-time, nearly flawless data collection and communication, and therefore, it facilitates and increases the real-time awareness of the location, amount, origin, destination and schedule of the material.
automatic identification and recognition
Automatic Identification and Recognition
  • Bar coding technology:
    • bar codes
    • bar code readers
    • bar code printers
  • Optical character recognition
  • Radio Frequency (RF) and Surface Accoustical Wave (SAW) tags
  • Magnetic Stripes
  • Machine Vision
automatic paperless communication
Automatic Paperless Communication
  • RF data terminal
  • Voice headset
  • Light and Computer Aids
  • Smart card