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Shays rebellion, January 1787. US Continental army goes into Mass. To put down the ‘rebelling farmers with pitchforks’ How did Shays rebellion ‘scare’ the revolutionary leaders of government?. The Federalist Papers.

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shays rebellion january 1787
Shays rebellion, January 1787

US Continentalarmy goes into Mass. To put down the ‘rebelling farmers with pitchforks’

How did Shays rebellion ‘scare’ the revolutionary leaders of government?

the federalist papers
The Federalist Papers

were written and published during the years 1787 and 1788 in several New York State newspapers to persuade New York voters to ratify the proposed constitution.

consist of 85 essays outlining how this new government would operate and why this type of government was the best choice for the United States of America.

philadelphia 1787
Philadelphia, 1787

TIME: 1780s were a tumultuous decade. FEAR the country might sink into CHAOS.

PLACE: Philadelphia, PA

2nd largest city in US (28,000)

Independence Hall

Very hot summer. Windows-doors were kept closed to promote candid discussions.

Some days were extremely uncomfortable

i hook exercise constitution
I. Hook Exercise: Constitution
  • Individually, you have 4 minutes to answer the four questions:
    • Tyranny of states over central government
    • Tyranny of the Chief Executive
    • Tyranny of the President over the Judicial branch
    • Tyranny of ‘BIG’ states over ‘little’ states
  • We will discuss afterwards.
how did the constitution guard against tyranny
How Did the Constitution Guard Against Tyranny?
  • Answer the 5 “Background Essay” questions
  • Revert to the “Background Essay” for help
  • A-B partners, review answers
  • Be ready to explain the four BOLD terms from the essay:
    • Constitution
    • Articles of Confederation
    • Frame
    • Tyranny
    • ‘Who is James Madison?’
james madison virginia father of the us constitution
James Madison, Virginia‘Father of the US Constitution’

Only delegate to take thorough notes of convention

Knew how to create a democratic framework that would last

Co-wrote the Federalist Papersto ensure ratification (Alexander Hamilton & John Jay)

Will become the 4th President of the United States

pre bucketing
  • FEDERALISM: theory of federal principles for dividing powers between member units; federal government and state government
  • SEPARATION OF POWERS: separation of powers amongst different branches of government (Montesquieu)
  • CHECKS & BALANCES: set up a system of checks and balances to help ensure that no one branch became too powerful (Montesquieu)
  • SMALL vs LARGE STATES: less populous states (Del,NJ), which were afraid that they would be overshadowed by states with larger populations
understanding document a
Understanding Document A
  • The Federalist Papers: perhaps the most brilliant defense of the Constitution ever written
  • Madison uses phrase ‘compound government’-this means federalism
  • Concrete explanation of powers of the Federal and the State governments
  • Reminder: the term ‘federal’ refers to a “central” or “national” government
understanding document b
Understanding Document B
  • May 25, 1787: the first meeting day
  • Establishing separation of legislature, executive, judicial was quickly established
  • Key Executive powers:
    • enforcement of laws - make treaties – appoint judges – appoint executive department heads
  • Key Legislative powers:
    • create laws - approve judges - approve budgets
  • Key Judicial powers:
    • interpret laws - decide meaning of laws - judicial review
understanding document c
Understanding Document C
  • Checks & Balances is a necessary ‘sidecar’ to separation of powers
  • C & B are needed to protect the people
  • Some suggestions that were not passed:
    • President and a ‘few’ justices would review every proposal from Congress
    • Have 1 or 2 or 3 ‘Presidents’ who could deny passage of laws for years at a time
  • The final result:
    • The (one) President could vetoany bills from Congress
    • Congress would then have to re-vote on the bill again
understanding document d
Understanding Document D
  • State representation was the #1 issue to solve; R.I. did not even attend!
  • Virginia Plan: representation based on population (Edmond Randolph)
  • New Jersey Plan: each state receive one vote (William Patterson)
  • The Great Compromise was eventually reached
    • There would be 2 Houses in Congress
      • Senate: one vote per state
      • House of Representatives: votes based on population of each state