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AY202a Galaxies & Dynamics Lecture 1: Introduction Organization, History, Basic Cosmology. Prof. John Huchra, P309 TA Joseph Munoz, P203 JPH’s Assistant Lisa Catella, P324 M+W 10:00 - 11:30 Observatory Classroom. Course Outline & Structure. Introduction (4 Lectures)

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ay202a galaxies dynamics lecture 1 introduction organization history basic cosmology

AY202a Galaxies & DynamicsLecture 1: IntroductionOrganization, History, Basic Cosmology

Prof. John Huchra, P309

TA Joseph Munoz, P203

JPH’s Assistant Lisa Catella, P324

M+W 10:00 - 11:30

Observatory Classroom

course outline structure

Course Outline & Structure

Introduction (4 Lectures)

Structure & Dynamics (6 Lectures)

Masses & Omega (2 Lectures)

Galaxy Nuclei & AGN (3 Lectures)

Clustering (LSS) (5 Lectures)

Formation & Evolution (3 Lectures)

Extragalactic Distances (1 Lecture)

resources ps grading etc
Resources, PS, Grading etc.

Website: www.cfa.harvard.edu/~huchra/ay202

will have PS, Solutions, Schedules, References

Problem Sets approximately every 2 weeks

(6 total) ~ one per major section.

Take home Final Exam, tentatively due Dec 14

Grades: PS 50% Exam 40% Class 10%

Sections: TBA, Office hours by appointment

Paper of the Week --- Classic or Recent ArXiv

texts
Texts

Extragalactic Astronomy & Cosmology, 2006,

P. Schneider (Berlin: Springer).

Galactic Dynamics, 2008, J. Binney & S. Tremaine, (Princeton: Princeton)

Galactic Astronomy}, 1998, J. Binney & M. Merrifield (Princeton: Princeton).

Coop, Amazon or JPH’s booksellers list.

slide7

“My Work is to Stare into Space”

IAU, Commissions 27, 30 & 40

Teamsters, Local 560 (Newark, NJ)

Another Protagonist

a brief history of extragalactic astronomy
A Brief History of Extragalactic Astronomy:

~ 1750 Early Rumblings of “Island Universes”

from I. Kant, T. Wright, P. Laplace.

This seems to have been forgotten soon after.

1800’s Catalogs of “Things” but no understanding.

de la Caille, Messier, Herschel3, Dreyer

William, Caroline & John

~ 1875The Discovery of the Galaxy ---

Kapteyn’s Universe

1890’s Galaxy Photography (Keeler)

slide10

The Sun

R.Pogge 2007

slide11
1910 Removal of the Solar-Centric view

1900-1920 Shapley and the Great Debate

1907 Bohlin --- M31 Parallax

1918 Van Maanen --- M31 Parallax

1885 S Andromeda = SN1885a

Large reflectors + Photographic Plates

1912 Galaxy Spectra (Slipher)

1920 The Shapley-Curtis debate

Shapley + Globular Clusters + Cepheids

1924 Hubble & the Hooker --- NGC 6822 Cepheids, eventually M31 Cepheids

slide13
1910-1930 Theory! Einstein, Friedmann, deSitter, Lemaitre, Tolman, Robertson …

1922 Opik’s M31 Mass-to-Light ratio

L = 4πr2 

GMm/r = ½ mv2

M = ½ v2r/G, r =  D

so M/L = ½

and Opik estimated D of M31 at 450 kpc.

v21 1

G  4πD

slide14
1929Hubble (+Slipher) à Velocity-Distance Law
  • 1930’s Hubble’s Classification Scheme for Galaxies (Tuning Fork Diagram)
  • N.B. Absolutely necessary but wrong interpretation, set galaxy evolution back 20 years!
  • Hubble’s Galaxy Counts (Humason)
  • Zwicky & Smith DARK MATTER
  • 1940’s Galactic Dust, Stellar Populations, Hubble Diagram
slide15
1948 Gamow & the Hot Big Bang

1950’s deVaucouleurs’ Local “Supergalaxy”

Rubin: Flows

Dicke: CMB

HMS Velocities + Hubble Diagram

Baade & Sandage: H0 revisions

Minkowski: Radio galaxies

1960’s The Hubble Constant Debate

“On the Ability of the 200” to Distinguish

Among World Models”

Tinsley: Stellar Evolution -->

Galaxy Evolution

slide16
Greenstein & Schmidt: Quasars

Arp: Peculiar Galaxies

Spinrad &Taylor : Population

Synthesis

Page: Galaxy Masses

1970’s Stability & Halos (Toomre)

Starbursts

H0!!! q0!!!

First Feeble Redshift Surveys

CMB Dipole

slide17
1970’sGalaxy Clusters & X-Rays

Gravitational Lenses

Galaxy Formation

1980’s Large-Scale Structure

Large Scale Flows & Cold Dark

Matter Rise of “SCDM”

Galaxy Counts

H0!!!!

IRAS & Dusty Starbursts

slide18
1990’s COBE: 2.723 K + fluctuations

Biased Galaxy Formation

Unified AGN Models

Λ!!!!! (who’d a thunk it!)

Start of Concordance Cosmology

HST and Galaxy Evolution

2000+ The Cosmic Web

GRB’s

Final fall of “SCDM”

Re-ionization & First Light?

slide19

COSMOLOGY is a modern subject:

The basic framework for our current

view of the Universe rests on ideas and

discoveries (mostly) from the early 20th

century.

Basics:

Einstein’s General Relativity

The Copernican Principle

Fundamental Observations & Principles

slide20

Fundamental Observations:

The Sky is Dark at Night (Olber’s P.)

The Universe is Homogeneous on

large scales (c.f. the CMB)

The Universe is generally Expanding

The Universe has Stuff in it, and the

stuff is consistent with a hot

origin: Tcmb = 2.725o

cobe fluctuations
COBE Fluctuations

dt/t < 10-5, i.e. much smoother than a

baby’s bottom!

reading assignment
Reading Assignment

For next Wednesday (we’re off Monday)

“Extragalactic Nebulae” by

Edwin Hubble, ApJ 64, 321 (1926)

Read, Outline,be prepared to discuss Hubble’s

major findings and conclusions.