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Seasonal Change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Seasonal Change. Environmental Explorations. Mr. Velazquez. Why the change?. As summer ends and autumn comes, the days get shorter and shorter. This is how the trees "know" to begin getting ready for winter. During winter, there is not enough light or water for photosynthesis.

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Seasonal Change

Environmental Explorations

Mr. Velazquez

why the change
Why the change?
  • As summer ends and autumn comes, the days get shorter and shorter.
  • This is how the trees "know" to begin getting ready for winter.
  • During winter, there is not enough light or water for photosynthesis.
  • The trees will rest, and live off the food they stored during the summer.
  • The greenchlorophylldisappears from the leaves. As the bright green fades away, we begin to see yellow and orange colors. Small amounts of these colors have been in the leaves all along. We just can't see them in the summer, because they are covered up by the green chlorophyll.
why leaves change colors
Why leaves change colors?
  • Thecarotenoidsoccur with the chlorophyll pigments.
  • This is why leaves can be green and yellow at the same time.
  • They are always present in the leaf structure that’s why some plants have a yellow green color even during summer.
why leaves change color
Why leaves change color?

During the summer the phosphate are at a very high level. The chlorophyll is the most abundant pigment.

In fall the phosphate levels alone with other chemicals and nutrients moves from the leaf into the stem of the plant.

This leads to the production of other pigments like Anthocyanins.

color of leaves
Color of leaves
  • Leaf are green because of a pigment known as chlorophyll.
  • The chlorophyll mask out the colors of any other pigments in the leaves cells.
  • There are other colors in the leaves:
    • Carotenoids( yellow orange and browns)
    • Anthocyanins ( reds and purples)
how does weather affect autumn color
How does weather affect autumn color?
  • The amount and brilliance of the colors that develop in any particular autumn season are related to weather conditions.
  • Temperature and moisture are the main influences.
  • The amount of moisture in the soil also affects autumn colors.
  • Like the weather, soil moisture varies greatly from year to year.
  • The countless combinations of these two highly variable factors assure that no two autumns can be exactly alike.
what triggers leaf fall
What triggers leaf fall?
  • In early autumn the shortening days and declining intensity of sunlight, leaves begin the processes leading up to their fall.
  • The veins that carry fluids into and out of the leaf gradually close off as a layer of cells forms at the base of each leaf.
  • Once this separation layer is complete and the connecting tissues are sealed off, the leaf is ready to fall.
colors of fall
Colors of Fall
  • Hardwood species are the ones that have the most color display during fall.
    • Hickories
    • Ash
    • Maples
    • Aspen
    • Birch
    • Cottonwood

Aspen

Hickory

Maple

Birch

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Anthocyanin

Purple

Red

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Carotenoids

Orange

Brown

Yellow

chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
  • Its the pigment which gives plants its green color and is responsible for absorption of light, allowing photosynthesis to occur.
pigment
Pigment
  • Any substance whose presence in plant or animal tissues produces a characteristic color
  • Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments.
anthocyanins
Anthocyanins
  • The most important of the visible plant pigments, responsible for the reds, purples, and blues you see in plants.
carotenoids
Carotenoids
  • Any of a class of highly unsaturated yellow to orange and brown pigments occurring in plants.
deciduous
Deciduous
  • Having leaves that fall off or are shed seasonally to avoid adverse weather conditions such as cold or drought.
hardwoods
Hardwoods
  • Trees that lose their leaves in autumn; also refers to the wood produced by these trees.
  • Hardwoods are the predominant type of tree in the deciduous forest.
phosphate
Phosphate
  • Compounds of phosphorus, phosphates are an essential plant nutrient.
  • Its symbol is PO4.