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Persuasive Writing. AN INTRODUCTION. Wednesday 24 th October. LEARNING INTENTIONS. SUCCESS CRITERIA. -Be able to recognise and identify the recurring techniques used in persuasive writing and comment on their effectiveness. By the end of today we will:

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persuasive writing
Persuasive Writing

AN INTRODUCTION

wednesday 24 th october
Wednesday 24th October

LEARNING INTENTIONS

SUCCESS CRITERIA

-Be able to recognise and identify the recurring techniques used in persuasive writing and comment on their effectiveness.

  • By the end of today we will:
  • Understand the purpose of persuasive writing

- To begin to develop my understanding of the various techniques used in persuasive writing.

purpose of persuasive writing
Purpose of Persuasive Writing
  • To change a person/ group of people’s way of thinking.
  • To influence someone into accepting your opinion on an issue.
  • You are required to argue FOR or AGAINST something. It is not a neutral writing piece.
slide4
THERE ARE THREE WAYS WE SHOULD TRY TO APPEAL TO OUR AUDIENCE

APPEAL TO REASON

Most people believe themselves to be reasonable people, so appealing to a person’s sense of reason is the most effective means of convincing them to change their way of thinking e.g. ‘if we don’t do this…then…)

slide5
APPEAL TO CHARACTER

Appealing to your audience’s sense of what is right and fair can be a powerful persuasive device, e.g. ‘like you, I share a sense of horror and repulsion for what is happening…’

slide6
APPEAL TO EMOTIONS

People can be persuaded by the careful and considered use of emotional bribery. ‘tug on their heart strings’

Showing your own passion is also an effective way of rousing emotion in others.

what techniques we can use to appeal to our audience
WHAT TECHNIQUES WE CAN USE TO APPEAL TO OUR AUDIENCE?

P-ersonal Pronouns: you, me, we, us-creating bond with the reader

E-motive Language- words which can create an emotional response in the reader

R-hetorical Questions-needs no response- used to focus the attention on the answer or the main point of the argument.

S-tatistics and Facts- People are suckers for statistics and facts – these appeal to someone’s reason.

U-sing an authority figure- to make your argument sound spot on. Make up a name!

A-lliteration and Anecdotes-add alliteration to make memorable phrases- use Anecdotes(short stories) to bring your argument to life.

D-escription and imagery- use metaphors and similes etc. to describe an anecdote

E-xaggeration- exaggerate to emphasise or prove your point

R-epeition and groups of 3- again, for emphasis!

activity 1
ACTIVITY 1.

IN PAIRS WRITE THE ACRONYMS: P.E.R.S.U.A.D.E.R IN YOUR MARGIN. HOW MANY OF THE TECHNIQUES CAN YOU REMEMBER?

(4 MINS)

martin luther king jnr
Martin Luther King Jnr.

Tell me a fact about Martin Luther King! (Keep in mind the theme of persuasion)

Things to think about:

Who was he trying to persuade?

Why was he trying to persuade people?

What was he best known for?

Who shot him and why?

listening activity
LISTENING ACTIVITY

LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE EXTRACT OF MARTIN LUTHER KING’S I HAVE A DREAM SPEECH.

CAN YOU IDENTIFY ANY OF THE PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES? TAKE A NOTE OF THESE.

YOU WILL HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS WHAT YOU PICKED UP ON IN YOUR GROUPS.

NOISE LEVEL: SILENT THROUGHOUT SPEECH.

activity
ACTIVITY

1)Look at a written version of MLK’s speech, which he gave in Lincoln Memorial Day, August 28th 1968.

With your partner identify the techniques you can find.

2) What do you think Martin Luther King is mostly appealing to:

Reason

Character

Emotion

Why do you think this? Use evidence from the extract of his speech to support your answer.

(3 MINS+ 3 FOR FEEDBACK)

slide13
22nd November. Persuasive Writing

LEARNING INTENTIONS

SUCCESS CRITERIA

By the end of today we will:

-begin to use

--Decide a topic for our persuasive writing piece.

-

-use persuasive-feedback to class in order to demonstrate your K&U of the purpose and effects of persuasive understanding

what we ve been learning so far
WHAT WE’VE BEEN LEARNING SO FAR…
  • PERSUASIVE WRITING IS USED TO:
  • To change a person/ group of people’s way of thinking.
  • To influence someone into accepting your opinion on an issue.
  • Being persuasive isn’t just a matter of chance. There are certain, specific TECHNIQUES involved.
  • P.E.R.S.U.A.D.E.R
  • When persuading, THE AUDIENCE is very important. We should appeal to a person’s REASON, CHARACTER and EMOTIONS
appeal to reason
APPEAL TO REASON

REALISE THAT YOUR AUDIENCE ALREADY BELIEVE THEY ARE REASONABLE PEOPLE.

IF YOU ARE TRYING TO DISSUADE THAT VIEW THEN YOUR JOB IS TO MAKE YOUR OWN VIEW APPEAR SO MUCH MORE REASONABLE THAN THEIR’S.

DO THIS BY PROVIDING EVIDENCE/FACTS.

IT IS THE LANGUAGE YOU USE TO COMMUNICATE THESE FACTS THAT IS IMPORTANT:

EMOTIVE LANGUAGE

22 nd nov
22nd Nov
  • LEARNING INTENTIONS
  • By the end of today we will:
  • Have a developed understanding of what ‘emotive language is’
  • Understand when/why emotive language is used and by whom
  • SUCCESS CRITERIA
  • To be able to replace less emotive words with a more emotive substitute to create effect.
  • Using various statistics/facts we will be able to write a short passage which incorporates our knowledge of persuasive techniques: especially emotive language.
23 rd nov what we ve learned so far
23rd NovWhat we’ve learned so far
  • THAT PERERSUASIVE LANGUAGE IS USED TO
  • To change a person/ group of people’s way of thinking.
  • To influence someone into accepting your opinion on an issue.
  • THAT THERE ARE DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES THAT WE USE WHEN PERSUADING PEOPLE.
    • P.E.R.S.U.A.D.E.R.
    • AUDIENCE is very important. We as persuaders should APPEAL to their REASON, CHARACTER AND EMOTIONS
slide18
EMOTIVE LANGAUGE

WHAT IS EMOTIVE LANGUAGE?

IN PAIRS , TAKE TWO MINUTES TO COME UP WITH A DEFINITION OF WHAT YOU BELIEVE EMOTIVE LANGUAGE TO BE AND WHO MIGHT USE IT.

IT’S OK IF YOU ARE NOT YET ENTIRELY SURE….

emotive language
EMOTIVE LANGUAGE

IF SOMETHING IS EMOTIVE IT MAKES PEOPLE EMOTIONAL

THIS DOESN’T NECESSARILY MEAN IT MAKES THEM ‘SAD’ … IT CAN MAKE PEOPLE SAD, HAPPY, EXCITED, ANGRY, PANICKED ETC…

LANGAUGE THAT RELATES TO OR REFERS TO OUR EMOTIONS…

slide20
EMOTIVE LANGUAGE IS OFTEN USED BY PUBLIC SPEAKERS. PARTICULARLY THOSE WHO WANT TO PERSUADE THE PUBLIC IN SOME WAY…
  • POITICIANS, ACTIVISTS, MEDIA/PRESS, RELIGIOUS LEADERS etc
  • EMOTIVE LANGUAGE IS COMMONLY USED IN NEWSPAPERS/MAGAZINES AND CERTAIN ADVERTS IN ORDER TO
  • ENSURE THAT READERS/VIEWERS REACT EMOTIONALLY TO A STORY.
slide21
ACTIVITY THINK-PAIR-SHARE FIVE MINUTES
  • Below are five pairs of headlines. Decide which one of the pair is most likely to excite the reader (a) or (b)? Give reasons for your choice.
  • (a) country declines into a recession
  • (b) country deteriorates into a recession
  • (a) hospital blaze claims five lives
  • (b) five die in hospital fire
  • (a) skilful David Beckham earns millions
  • (b) Beckham’s magic makes him million
  • (a)Lennox Lewis agony
  • (b)Lennox Lewis injured
  • (a) missing teen found safe and well
  • (b) missing teen returns home
slide22
Anagram:

Below is an anagram featuring the names of two people renown for their ability to persuade and inspire… do you know who?...

You can use each letter more than once

I am a breath-taking, blank rumor…

slide24
Learning Intentions

Success Criteria

  • We will be successful if we:
  • -choose an appropriate subject/issue that has been approved by the teacher
  • --Begin to compose our plan using the persuasive writing planning sheet provided
  • By the end of today we will:
  • -Have a clear idea of the subject/issue we will be writing about in our piece of persuasive writing
  • -Understand how to structure our persuasive writing essay
slide25
Appeal to Logic –

Use facts and figures, expert opinions, science.

Appeal to Emotions-

Stirring peoples’ emotions will definitely help to bring them on board.

Appeal to Morality-

Appealing to someone’s sense of right and wrong is also an effective persuasive method

slide26
IDEAS FOR TOPICS

SHOULD THE DEATH PENALTY BE ABOLISHED?

FACEBOOK AND OTHER ‘SOCIAL NETOWRKING SITES.’ – RIGHT OR WRONG?

SHOULD COSMETICS BE TESTED ON ANIMALS?

SHOULD THE SALE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS BE ILLEGAL?

SHOULD DYING PEOPLE BE KEPT ON LIFE SUPPORT?

ARE VIDEO GAMES TOO VIOLENT?

SIZE ZERO MODELIING – SHOULD THIS BE BANNED?

SHOULD THE LEGAL AGE FOR DRINKING BE INCREASED?

SHOULD ARMY SERVICE BE COMPULSORY?

GENETIC ENGINEERING: SHOULD WE BE ABLE TO CREATE A ‘DESIGNER BABY’?

next step
Next Step
  • Once you have decided on a topic, the next step you have to take is to decide exactly WHAT you will be arguing.
  • You will need to compile arguments for AND against your chosen topic.
  • However , your focus at this stage are the arguments FOR which will make your essay persuasive, and convince others to share your opinion.
step 1 decide your point of view on the issue
Step 1 – Decide your point of view on the issue
  • Let us say that in your persuasive essay you intend to persuade the reader that the tax on tobacco should be increased so that the demand for cigarettes will be reduced.  You start the note preparation with the simple statement:
  • I think that the tax on tobacco should be increased.
  • All points made in the essay are written to convince the reader of this view.
step 2 create points that support your point of view
STEP 2 - Create points that support your point of view

Here, we have produced a list of five points, although we could have listed more.

step 4 show that you are aware that there are counter arguments
Step 4 – Show that you are aware that there are counter arguments
  • You will impress the marker by showing that you understand both sides of the issue and that you can argue against objections to your point of view. This will strengthen your persuasive essay.
  • You make a list of two or three points which oppose yours and introduce these points in your essay explaining why you do not find them convincing. 
  • Example of two opposing points on the smoking issue:
step 5 research
Step 5 - Research
  • If you have followed STEP 1 to STEP 4 you are ready to find "Types of Evidence" to support the points you have chosen to develop.
types of evidence
Types of Evidence
  • There are many types of evidence you can use in your persuasive essay to support the points made by each side.
  • You can use any type as many times as you want, although it always shows skill to use more than one type, maybe even three or four types. Being good at using several types of evidence makes a stronger essay and shows more evidence handling skills.
  • (All the examples are based on a persuasive essay arguing for an increase in tobacco tax.)
using anecdotal evidence
Using Anecdotal Evidence
  • Anecdotal evidence is 'story' evidence. A story is told and the facts of the story are the evidence. A story is used to back-up the point made by one side. It is important that the evidence is true (remember where you get it from as you will have to reference it in a bibliography at the end of your essay)
point less smoking means less demand for nhs
Point – Less smoking means less demand for NHS
  • Anecdotal Evidence: Ex-smoker Michelle Boisvert suffers from degenerative disc disease (DDD). Diagnosed at the age of 33, she has since learned that cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for DDD. Michelle says, "I was diagnosed with severe DDD in 1998 when I was 33 years old and still a smoker. Although genetic predisposition is the number 1 risk factor, a growing number of studies indicate that smoking is a leading risk factor for DDD, both in the lumbar discs (lower back) and cervical discs (neck)."
  • (Source: www.about.com/smoking-relateddiseasestories/)
  • You can see that the anecdotal evidence can be used to support the point that, because if Michelle Boisvert had found cigarettes too expensive then she would not have smoked. She would not then have to seek expensive and on going treatment for her serious illness.
using facts
Using facts
  • Facts can be used to support points in a discursive essay. (Again, remember where you got the facts from - the source - as you will need to reference your sources in the bibliography.)
  • If you use facts, try to use more than one. A series of facts supports a point far better than just one fact. Very rarely can one fact support a point, some may call it a coincidence rather than real evidence!
point higher tobacco taxes means more income for the government
Point: Higher tobacco taxes means more income for the government.
  • Factual Evidence: According to Government figures, in 2011 the UK government received £11 billion by taxing tobacco products. This is a major contribution to Education spending which is £90 billion. Year-on-year tax rises have slowly increased the amount that government earns.
  • (Source: www.the-tma.org.uk/tma-publications-research/facts-figures/tax-revenue-from-tobacco/;www.ukpublicspending.co.uk/index.php?year=2011)
  • By piling on the facts that support a point, you make the point stronger and more convincing. It also shows that you are handling evidence well
using statistics
Using Statistics
  • 'There are lies, damned lies and statistics'. This was said by former British Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli. However, if used correctly, statistics can be used as powerful evidence as they seem like scientific truth.
  • When using statistics it is crucial that you understand what they show. It is all too easy to use statistics incorrectly and end up contradicting the point you want them to support.
point if there is less smoking then health risks are reduced
Point: If there is less smoking then health risks are reduced
  • Evidence: 85%-90% of all lung cancer deaths in the United States are caused by active cigarette smoking. In the UK 25% to 40% of all smokers will die in middle age (35 to 69). 
  • (Source:www.info.cancerresearchuk.org/healthyliving/smokingandtobacco/howdoweknow/#Lung)
  • It is possible to use statistics that are weaker than others. The fact that the statistic isn't clear about how many smokers will die in middle age makes it slightly weaker.
  • The problem with statistics is that they are only as accurate as what can be written down and recorded. There is no context for much of the figures (10% of the statistic about smokers may be non-smoking related). But statistics can be powerful evidence, especially if the recording is very tight. For example, pass or fail rates in exams - it is known exactly how many people sit the exam, how many pass and how many fail.
using an authority figure
Using an authority figure
  • Using a random person’s opinion to support your argument is rarely effective…
  • However, when an opinion or belief comes from someone with expertise and experience in the area you are examining then it becomes stronger. The opinions of a doctor can carry greater weight with people as evidence than the opinions of non-experts with little experience in the area.
  • Points in your essay can be supported by opinions and beliefs - the more expert and experienced in the area of your persuasive essay, the better.
point smoking means more demands on nhs resources
Point: Smoking means more demands on NHS resources.
  • Evidence: A study commissioned by the British Heart Foundation has found that smoking costs the NHS £5 billion a year. Study leader Dr Steven Allender, said the increased costs were largely due to increasing expense of treatment on the NHS with better treatment and technologies, 'The story is not so much the increase (in costs) but that £5bn is an enormous number regardless'. Betty McBride of the British Heart Foundation said, 'This is money being drained out of the NHS as a direct result of something we have the power to prevent'.
  • (Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/8086142.stm)
  • The opinion of experts can carry weight and support points more effectively.
  • When points are made about what might happen then using opinions of experienced experts may be the only evidence available.
creating a title
Creating a Title
  • The title of your persuasive essay will be the first words the marker reads. Your title sends a strong signal to the marker about the quality of your essay.
  • A title can:
  • • create immediate impact • show your intelligence • give information
  • • make the reader think • provoke emotion - anger, shock, disgust
  • • be humorous • convey your opinion • make your issue clear
slide44
Success Criteria for introduction:
  • Your topic should be clear and be established early in your introduction.
  • Show an awareness of audience. You are not simply expressing YOUR opinion (although this is very important) You should make it clear the opinion/view which you are writing to undermine.
  • Abortion is the deliberate killing of the weakest and most defenseless among us. Unfortunately, for the last few decades, the practice has been recognized as a fundamental human right by the highest court of the land. Many people are fervent supporters of abortion. Their reasons for support are varied. However, I believe that support for abortion is not possible for those who understand our dignity as human persons under God. We were made by God, and it is from Him that we derive our worth.
slide45
AGAINST
  • Abortion is the deliberate killing of the weakest and most defenceless among us. Unfortunately, for the last few decades, the practice has been recogniSed as a fundamental human right by the highest court of the land. Many people are fervent supporters of abortion. Their reasons for support are varied. However, I believe that support for abortion is not possible for those who understand our dignity as human person. Why should we have the right to take another person’s life?
  • OR
  • FOR
  • Every woman should have the freedom to decide whether they want to bring a child into the world. There are often numerous complicated circumstances surrounding a woman in this position that are often overlooked or dismissed by anti-abortion activists. Although such people argue the immorality of abortion based on how it supposedly neglects to acknowledge the human rights of the unborn foetus,. However, we need to ask each other: is it not more immoral to dictate to a grown woman the decisions she should make over her own body? Where does this leave the woman’s human rights?
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