QUESTIONNAIRE PRESENTED BY: MOHAMAD AIZAT BIN AHMAD (2011106699) SITI HAJAR BINTI ANIP (2011937431) NURUL HANA BINTI MOHD NAZRI (2011146955)
INSTRUMENTATION • The whole process of preparing to collect data which includes: • Selection or design of the instruments • Location • Time • Frequency • Administration
Consideration in selecting a research instrument • Validity- measures what it is supposed to measure • Reliability- gives consistent result • Objectivity- absence of subjective judgments • Usability- convenience instrument
What is Questionnaire? • A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Getting started • Plan the survey as a whole • Objectives - what you want your questionnaire to achieve • Data needs - your research goals, and think about what information you need to elicit from respondents to meet those goals.
Getting started • Analysis - how you are going to analyse each question to get the results you need. Remember there is a difference between things you need to know, and those it would be nice to know
Introduction • The introduction of the questionnaire is very important because it outlines the pertinent information about the survey. The introduction should: • provide the title or subject of the survey • explain the purpose of the survey • request the respondent’s co-operation • inform the respondent about confidentiality issues, the status of the survey (voluntary or mandatory) and any existing data-sharing agreements with other organizations.
Formatting The Questions • Appropriate format for each question has to be ascertained • Each of the formats serves specific purposes that coincide with the researcher’s information and data analysis needs
Likert Scale • Usually used to measure the strength of an attitude or an opinion • respondents specify their level of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree-disagree scale for a series of statements
Likert Scale • The respondent is presented a sentence and is asked to agree or disagree on a 3,5 or 7 point scale. • It provides an excellent means of gathering opinions and attitudes • When writing the scale, you must include instructions that describe how to complete it
Likert Scale • On a survey or questionnaire, a typical Likert item usually takes the following format: • "balanced" because there are equal amounts of positive and negative positions
Sample 1 Strongly Not Strongly disagree Disagree sure Agree agree I use research methods in my job
Semantic Differential Scale • rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events, and concepts. • The connotations are used to derive the attitude towards the given object, event or concept.
Rating Questions • Ratings are assigned solely on the basis of the score’s absolute position within a range of possible values • Easy to write, easy to answer • Provide a level of quantification that is adequate for most purposes
Sample • Select the choice that best describes your actions in the first five minutes of the classes you teach 5= always, 4= almost always, 3= about half the time, 2= rarely, 1= never _____ state lesson objectives and overview at start of the lesson ______ state lesson objectives but no overview at start of the lesson ______ don’t state objectives or overview at start of the lesson
Ranking Questions • Rank options – priority, importance, size or cost • The respondent is given a list of items and asked to rank them in order of importance
Sample: Rank in order of importance the following five weaknesses of the training program. That is, place 1 beside the weakness you consider most important, 2 beside the next most important weakness and so forth, until you have ranked all five weaknesses. Rank The training program was too short. ____ The content did not suit my needs. ____ The content was too theoretical. ____ The training group was too large. ____ The training methods were poor. ____
Open-Ended Questions • Easy to write • Do not require an extensive knowledge of the subject
Sample • What do you understand by the term ‘e-Learning’? • Give some examples of e-learning activities carried out in your faculty. • What is your opinion regarding the integration of ICT into university teaching and learning? • What suggestion(s) do you have to further improve the integration of ICT into university teaching and learning?
Open-Ended Questions • Incomplete and ambiguous answers • Hard to analyze • Respondent may produce various answers • Cannot be subjected to machine-processing • “content analysis”- read and reread
Open-ended Questions • People are uncertain about what the questions means and how they are expected to answer • Increase respond burden- quality varies with respondent’s literacy, people are 10 times less likely to answer open-ended questions
Questionnaire Considerations • Be sure to commit the study goals to writing. • Whenever you are unsure of a question, refer to the study goals and a solution will become clear. • Ask only questions that directly address the study goals.
Cont.. • Keep your questionnaire short. • Response rate is the single most important indicator of how much confidence you can place in the results. • A low response rate can be devastating to a study. • One of the most effective methods of maximizing response is to shorten the questionnaire.
Cont.. • Try to eliminate questions. If the information will be used in a decision-making process, then keep the question... it's important. • To include other experts and relevant decision-makers in the questionnaire design process. Their suggestions will improve the questionnaire. • Formulate a plan for doing the statistical analysis during the design stage of the project. Know how every question will be analyzed and be prepared to handle missing data.
Cont.. • Make the envelope unique. • Provide a well-written cover letter. • Give your questionnaire a title that is short and meaningful to the respondent. • Include clear and concise instructions on how to complete the questionnaire. Be sure to print the return address on the questionnaire itself (since questionnaires often get separated from the reply envelopes). • Begin with a few non-threatening and interesting items.
Cont.. • Use simple and direct language. This will reduce misunderstandings and make the questionnaire appear easier to complete. One way to eliminate misunderstandings is to emphasize crucial words in each item by using bold, italics or underlining. • Leave adequate space for respondents to make comments. Leaving space for comments will provide valuable information not captured by the response categories. • Place the most important items in the first half of the questionnaire.
Cont.. • Hold the respondent's interest. We want the respondent to complete our questionnaire • Provide incentives as a motivation for a properly completed questionnaire. • Use professional production methods for the questionnaire--either desktop publishing or typesetting and key lining. • Make it convenient. The easier it is for the respondent to complete the questionnaire the better. • The final test of a questionnaire is to try it on representatives of the target audience.
Questionairre sample • ..\Documents\UITM2012\edu702\presentation\Questionnaire 1.doc
Conclusion • Well constructed questionnaires permit researchers to gather reasonably valid quantitative and qualitative data in simple, timely and costly efficient manner. • Questionnaires lend themselves to logical and organized data entry and analysis. • Developing the questionnaire requires thought, care and time. But the end product can be satisfying.