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DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN INEXPENSIVE CHAMBER FOR ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON. B.L. Woodbury, D.N. Miller, R.A. Eigenberg and J.A. Nienaber USDA ARS US Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska USA. The Problem The Feedlot Environment. Spatial & temporal variation:

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development and application of an inexpensive chamber for analysis of volatile organic carbon

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN INEXPENSIVE CHAMBER FOR ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON

B.L. Woodbury, D.N. Miller,

R.A. Eigenberg and J.A. Nienaber

USDA ARS US Meat Animal Research Center,

Clay Center, Nebraska USA

the problem the feedlot environment
The ProblemThe Feedlot Environment
  • Spatial & temporal variation:
    • Moisture
    • Temperature
    • Soil characteristics
    • Manure deposition
the problem potential gaseous emissions from feedlot surface

VFAs (Straight & Branch Chain)

Acetate  Octanoate

Isobutyrate, Isovalerate

Sulfides

Hydrogen sulfide

Methyl sulfides

Aromatics

Benzoates

Indoles

Phenols

Amides

Ammonia

Methylamines

Diamines

Alcohols (Straight & Branch Chain)

Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol, etc.

The ProblemPotential Gaseous Emissions from Feedlot Surface
objectives feedlot surface emissions
ObjectivesFeedlot Surface Emissions
  • Design a cost-effective headspace chamber suitable for laboratory and field studies
  • Evaluate its flow characteristics
design criteria
Design Criteria
  • Portable for use either in lab or field
  • Internal distribution system to ensure completely mixed conditions
  • Septa port for gas sampling (i.e., SPME)
  • Acid trap to collect ammonia
  • Calculate relative emission rates
  • Battery operated
the design the real salad bowl study
The Design“The Real Salad Bowl Study”
  • Hemispherical headspace chamber
  • Measure VOC w/SPME
  • Ammonia trap
tracer study
Tracer Study
  • Total headspace volume (V) 7.6 L
  • Flow rate (Q) 1.18 L min-1

RT = V/Q

  • 50 ml CH4 injection pulse
  • Analyzed using a GC/MS with HID detector
ch 4 break through curve
CH4 Break-Through-Curve
  • At 1 dilution
    • 32%
  • At 3 dilutions
    • 5%
  • Ideal reactor
    • 37 & 5%, respectively

32%

5%

theoretical and experimental headspace chamber properties
Theoretical And Experimental Headspace Chamber Properties

HRT V Q

(min) (L) (L min-1)

Calculated 6.5 7.6 1.16

Experimental 6.3 7.3 1.16

gaseous output
Gaseous Output

Microbiologist: One return port would be enough

Engineers: Four would be better

gaseous output1
Gaseous Output
  • Linear with manure surface area
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Chamber design performed similar to an ideal continuous flow stirred reactor
  • Concentrations measured at sampling port are indicative of concentrations anywhere in headspace
  • Chamber was found to be reasonably stable over wide range of flow rates
  • Linear with respect to surface area of manure
  • Cost per unit approx. $400.00
slide16
Laboratory Studies
  • Field Studies
laboratory studies fresh manures cattle vs swine
Laboratory StudiesFresh Manures: Cattle vs. Swine

Cattle—Ground corn/corn silage

15

10

5

Abundance, peak area x 106

Swine—Grower diet

15

10

5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Run time, minutes

laboratory studies volatiles composition cattle diets
Laboratory StudiesVolatiles Composition & Cattle Diets

Ground corn/corn silage diet

15

10

5

Abundance, peak area x 106

Alfalfa maintenance diet

15

10

5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Run time, minutes

laboratory studies manure incubation
Laboratory StudiesManure Incubation

Incubated

Fresh

Cattle—Ground corn/corn silage diet

15

10

5

Swine—Grower diet

15

10

Abundance, peak area x 106

5

Cattle—Alfalfa maintenance diet

15

10

5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Run time, minutes

Run time, minutes

field studies precision feedlot surface management

S

TX

RX

Field StudiesPrecision Feedlot Surface Management
  • Manure can be from 10 to 100 times more conductive than typical soil

Electromagnetic Induction Principles

The transmitter coil (TX) is placed near the earth and is energized with an alternating current. The small currents induced into the earth generate a secondary signal which is picked up by a receiver coil (RX) at a distance S away. The ratio of the two signals gives a measure of the soil’s conductivity beneath the two coils.

slide21

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2

1.9

1.8

1.7

Mound

1.6

June 2004

July 2004

1.5

October 2004

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

Mound

Mound

Waterer

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

Bunk

Waterer

Waterer

Bunk

Bunk

area based on conductivity
Area based on Conductivity

Less than 25% of the area is high conductivity

High Conductivity = Manure Accumulation?

Low

High

ammonia flux across pen
Ammonia Flux Across Pen

8X more VOC

Feedlot pen

NH3 flux M/m2/hr

MOUND

Sample Location

BUNK