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Semiconductor Devices Physics. Contents. Chapter 1 Introduction Part I Semiconductor Physics Chapter 2 Energy band and carrier concentration in thermal equilibrium Chapter 3 Carrier transport phenomena Part II Semiconductor devices Chapter 4 p-n junction

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Semiconductor Devices Physics


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    1. Semiconductor Devices Physics Chapter 1

    2. Contents • Chapter 1 Introduction • Part I Semiconductor Physics • Chapter 2 Energy band and carrier concentration in thermal equilibrium • Chapter 3 Carrier transport phenomena • Part II Semiconductor devices • Chapter 4 p-n junction • Chapter 5 Bipolar transistor and transient behavior Chapter 1

    3. Contents (cont.) • Chapter 6 MOSFET and related devices • Chapter 7 MESFET and related devices • Chapter 8 Microwave diodes, quantum-effect, and hot-electron devices • Chapter 9 Photonic devices Chapter 1

    4. Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1

    5. Gross world product (GWP) Chapter 1

    6. Device building blocks Figure 1.2. Basic device building blocks. (a) Metal-semiconductor interface; (b) p-n junction; (c) heterojunction interface; and (d) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure Chapter 1

    7. Metal-semiconductor interface • The first semiconductor device ever studied (in the year 1874) • Rectify contact • Allow electrical current to flow easily only in one direction • Gate (in MESFET) • Ohmic contact • Can pass current in either direction with a negligibly small voltage drop • Source and drain (in MESFET) Chapter 1

    8. p-n junction • Being formed between a p-type and an n-type semiconductor • Is a key building block for most semiconductor • P-n junction theory serves as the foundation of the physics of semiconductor • P-n-p bipolar transistor (1947) • P-n-p-n structure, thyristor. Chapter 1

    9. Heterojunction interface • An interface formed between two dissimilar semiconductors • Ex: GaAs-AlAs • High speed and photonic devices Chapter 1

    10. Metal-oxide-semiconductor • A combination of a metal-oxide interface and an oxide-semiconductor interface • MOSFET • MOS structure as the gate • Two p-n junction as the source and drain • The MOSFET is the most important device for advanced integrated circuits Chapter 1

    11. Metal-semiconductor contact The earliest systematic study of semiconductor devices is generally attribute to Braun 1874, discovered resistance between metals and meta sulfides Depend on the magnitude and polarity of the applied voltage Light emitting diode By Round in 1907 Applied a potential of 10V between two points on the carborundom crystal The generation of yellowish light Major semiconductor devices Chapter 1

    12. Major semiconductor devices • Point-contact transistor • Invented by J. Bardeen and W. H. Brattain, 1947 • Semiconductor • Germanium • The two point contact separated by about 50um • The bipolar transistor is a key semiconductor device and has ushered in the modern electronic era Chapter 1

    13. P-n junction 1949, Shockley Thyristor 1952, Ebers developed the basic for thyristor Is an extremely versatile switching device Solar cell 1954, Chapin, Fuller and Pearson Convert sunlight directly to electricity Heterojunction bipolar transistor 1957, Kroemer Improve the transistor performance Potentially one of the fastest semiconductor devices Tunnel diode 1958, Esaki Observed negative resistance characteristics in a heavily doped p-n junction Lead to the discovery of the tunnel diode For ohmic contact and carrier transport through a thin layer Major semiconductor devices Chapter 1

    14. MOSFET 1960, Kahng and Atalla The most important device for advanced IC Gate length=20μm, gate oxide thickness=100nm, aluminum gate The choice of Si and thermal oxide remain the most important combination of materials Laser 1962, Hall et al First achieved lasing in semiconductor Heterostructure laser 1963, Kroemer, Alferov and Kazarinov Laid the foundation for modern laser diodes Can be operated continuously at room temperature Major semiconductor devices Chapter 1

    15. Transferred-electron diode (TED) 1963, Gunn Gunn diode Is used in millimeter-wave application Detection system, remote controls and microwave test instruments IMPATT diode 1965, Johnston et al. Can generate highest continuous wave power at millimeter wave frequencies Used in radar and alarm system MESFET 1966, Mead A key device for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) Major semiconductor devices Chapter 1

    16. Nonvolatile semiconductor memory (NVSM) 1967, Kahng and Sze Can retain its stored information when the power supply is switched off The addition of floating gate Semipermanent charge storage is possible Nonvolatility High device density, low-power consumption and electrical rewritability Charge-coupled device (CCD) 1970, Boyle and Smith Used in video camera and in optical sensing application Resonant tunneling diode (RTD) 1974, Chang et al. The basis for most quantum-effect device Major semiconductor devices Chapter 1

    17. Czochralski crystal growth 1918, Czochralski A liquid-solid monocomponent growth technique Bridgman crystal growth 1925, Bridgman For the growth of gallium arsenide and related compound semiconductor crystals III-V compounds 1952, Welker He note that gallium arsenide and its related III-V compound were semiconductors Able to predict their characteristics and to prove them experimentally Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    18. Diffusion 1952, Pfann The basic diffusion theory was considered by Fick in 1855 The idea of using diffusion techniques to alter the type of conductivity in silicon was disclosed in a patent in 1952 by Pfann Lithographic photoresist 1957, Andrus He used photosensitive etch-resistant polymers for pattern transfer A key technology for semiconductor industry The continued growth of the industry has been the direct result of improved lithographic technology A significant economic factor Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    19. Oxide masking 1957, Frosch and Derrick Oxide layer can prevent most impurity atoms from diffusion through it Epitaxial CVD growth 1957, Sheftal, Kokorish and Krisalov Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    20. MODFET Modulation doped field-effect transistor 1980, Minura et al. Is expected to be the fastest field-effect transistor With the proper selection of heterojunction materials Single-electron memory cell (SEMC) 1994, Yano et al. Floating gate ultra-small dimension (10nm) 20 nm MOSFET 2001, Chau Major semiconductor devices Chapter 1

    21. Czochralski crystal growth 1918, Czochralski A liquid-solid monocomponent growth technique Bridgman crystal growth 1925, Bridgman Extensively for the growth of gallium arsenide and related compound semiconductor crystal III-V compounds 1952, welker He note that gallium arsenide and its related III-V compounds were semiconductor He was able to predict their characteristics and to prove them experimentally Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    22. Diffusion 1952, Pfann The basic diffusion theory was considerws by Fick in 1855 The idea of using diffusion techniques to alter the type of conductivity in silicon was disclosed in a patent in 1952 by Pfann Lithographic photoresist 1957, Andrus Used photosensitive etch-resistance polymers for pattern transfer. Is a key technology for the semiconductor industry The continued growth of the industry has been the direct result of improved lithographic technology A significant economic factor Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    23. Oxide masking 1957, Frosch et al. Oxide layer can prevent most impurity atoms from diffusing through it Epitaxial CVD growth 1957, Sheftal et al. Epitaxy Epi on Taxis arrangement To form a thin layer of semiconductor materials on the surface of a crystal that has a lattice structure identical to that of the crystal Ion implantation 1958, Shockley To dope semiconductor Has the capability of precisely controlling the number of implanted dopant atoms Complement with diffusion Diffusion high T, deep junction Ion implant  low T, shallow junction Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    24. Key semiconductor technologies • Hybrid integrated circuit • 1959, Kilby • It contain one bipolar transistor, three resistor, and one capacitor • Made in germanium • Connected by wire bonding • Monolithic integrated circuit • 1959, Noyce • Contain six device • Connecting the devices by aluminum metallization • Etching evaporated aluminum layer over the entire oxide surface using the lithographic technique Chapter 1

    25. Planar process 1960, Hoerni. An oxide layer is formed on a semiconductor surface Window cuts impurity diffuse only through the exposed semiconductor surface p-n junction formed in the oxide window area CMOS 1963, Wanlass and Sah Employs both nMOS and pMOS to form the logic element Draw little current Low power consumption Is the dominant technology for advanced ICs DRAM 1967, Dennard Contain one MOSFET and one charge-storage capacitor MOSFET as switch The first choice among various semiconductor memories Ploysilicon self-aligned gate 1969, Kerwin et al. Improve device reliability Reduce parasitic capacitances Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    26. MOCVD 1969, Manasevit et al. A very important epitaxial growth technique for compound semiconductor Dry etching 1971, Irving et al. Was developed to replace wet chemical etching for high-fidelity pattern transfer CF4-O2 gas mixture to etch silicon wafer Molecular beam epitaxy 1971, Cho Has the advantage of near-perfect vertical control of composition and doping down to atomic dimensions Photonic device and quantum-effect devices Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    27. Key semiconductor technologies • Microprocessor • 1971, Hoff, et al. • Put the entire central processing unit of a simple computer to a chip • Four bit microprocessor • Chip size 3mmx4mm • Contain 2300 MOSFETs, using 8um design rule Chapter 1

    28. Trench isolation 1982, Rung et al. In 1982 to isolate CMOS devices Eventually replace all other isolation method Chemical-mechanical polishing 1989, Davari et al. For global planarization of interlayer dielectrics This is a key process for multilevel metallization Copper interconnect 1993, Paraszczak et al. Al suffers from electromigration at high electrical current Copper is replace aluminum for minimum feature length approaching 100 nm Key semiconductor technologies Chapter 1

    29. Exponential increase of DRAM • The density increases by a factor of 2 every 18 months • The DRAM density will increase • to 8Gb in the year 2005 • to 64Gb around the year 2012 Chapter 1

    30. Exponential increase of microprocessor • The computational power increases by a factor of 2 every 18 months • It will reaches 100 GIP (billion instructions per second) in the year 2010 Chapter 1

    31. The growth curves for different technology drivers • 1950-1970 • The bipolar transistor • 1970-1990 • The DRAM and the microprocessor based on MOS devices • Because of PC and advanced electronic systems • Since 1990 • Nonvolatile semiconductor memory • Because of the portable electronic systems Chapter 1