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Last class

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  1. Last class • “Rule of law” promotion • Elites divided

  2. Today: Ideology What is an ideology A belief system that specifies the nature of the “good society” and how to achieve it Not “testable”; not subject to evaluation based on evidence 2

  3. Ideologies • Ideologies, belief systems relevant to contemporary China • Confucianism • Legalism • Liberalism • Nationalism • Marxism-Leninism • Maoism

  4. Confucianism • Examples of Confucianism’s relevance today?

  5. Confucianism • Ideal of social harmony • Through knowing one’s place • 4bonds • Ruler/minister • Father/son • Husband/wife • Elder/younger • Benevolence  •  Deference

  6. Confucianism Importance of moral exemplars and correct thinking/behavior Especially by Emperor Elites Self-cultivation Following moral exemplars Through education 6

  7. Confucianism Conservative ideology that idealizes the past 7

  8. Confucian Ideology Mandate of heaven “Right to rebel” When rulers neglect their subjects’ well-being 8

  9. How did a benevolent ruler deserving of the “Mandate of Heaven” rule? Normal functions of the Qing State Propagation of ideology, perpetuation of system of rule Tax collection Maintenance of public order Maintenance of basic infrastructure Provision of minimal social welfare and relief 9

  10. Losing the “Mandate of Heaven” • Normal functions of the Qing State • progressively undermined • by internal and external sources of decline in the 19thCentury.

  11. Internal Sources of Decline in the 19th Century • “Phenomenal” population increase • Increasing economic competition for survival • Corruption of regime • Series of major rebellions

  12. Series of Major Rebellions in 19th C • Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) • Nian Rebellion (1853-1868) • Others • suppressed by provincial armies outside of central state control • Est. 100 million deaths in rebellions

  13. Losing the “Mandate of Heaven” Qing Dynasty seen as losing the “Mandate of heaven” 13

  14. External Sources of Decline in the 19th Century Defeat in wars with Western powers and Japan Opium Wars 1839-1842 1856-1860 Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 14

  15. External Sources of Decline in the 19th Century Imperialism posed fundamental challenge to belief system Traditional exam system abolished 1905 Contrast: Macartney Mission 1793 15

  16. Confucianism How did Confucianism itself come to be discredited among intellectuals and students by the 20th Century? 16

  17. The Shadow of Confucianism Introduce discussion groups What is the “shadow of Confucianism”? 17

  18. The Shadow of Confucianism What is democracy? Percent Responding Procedural 24.6 Minben (substantive) 14.1 Mixed 4.6 Incoherent 14.7 Don’t know 42.0 *minben (民本) Source: Shijian Tian & Jie Lu, “The Shadow of Confucianism” Survey of 3,183 PRC residents 18

  19. The Shadow of Confucianism Confucian notion of minben “Rulership should be entrusted to those with superior knowledge and virtue” Legitimacy is defined by substance: how well the regime performs and cares for its people “Ordinary citizens have the right to participate only under extreme conditions—if a rule loses the “Mandate of Heaven” 19

  20. The Shadow of Confucianism What is democracy? Percent Responding Procedural 24.6  potential challenge to regime Minben (substantive) 14.1 Mixed 4.6 Incoherent 14.7 Don’t know 42.0 * “minben” (民本) Source: Shijian Tian & Jie Lu, “The Shadow of Confucianism” 20

  21. The Shadow of Confucianism What is democracy? Percent Responding Procedural 24.6 Minben (substantive) 14.1  potential support for regime Mixed 4.6 Incoherent 14.7 Don’t know 42.0 *minben (民本) Source: Shijian Tian & Jie Lu, “The Shadow of Confucianism” Survey of 3,183 PRC residents 21

  22. The Shadow of Confucianism What is democracy? Percent Responding Procedural 24.6 Minben (substantive) 14.1 Mixed 4.6 Incoherent 14.7 Don’t know 42.0  not threatening for regime *minben (民本) Source: Shijian Tian & Jie Lu, “The Shadow of Confucianism” Survey of 3,183 PRC residents 22

  23. Nationalism • Rise of nationalism in early 20th C

  24. Nationalist Party (founded 1912) KMT kuo-min-tang 国民党 guomindang Sun Yat-sen Nationalist ideology “Three People’s Principles” Nationalism Democracy People’s livelihood 24

  25. Chinese Communist Party (founded 1921) CCP 共产党 gongchandang Marxism-Leninism Radical, egalitarian Emphasis on Social transformation National self-determination  Next class: importance of nationalism in CCP platform/agenda CCP co-founder Chen Duxiu 25

  26. Marxism Economy (material foundation) “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but, on the contrary, their social (material) existence determines their consciousness.” “Scientific” theory of the development of history Feudalism Capitalism Socialism Communism Class Based on relationship to means of production In the case of capitalism Owners of capital Suppliers of labor (proletariat) Class conflict Drives politics Logic of capitalist competition necessitates increasing exploitation of workers Mass of workers would eventually overthrow the few capitalists Note that socialism follows developed capitalism 26

  27. Leninism New kind of political party Bolshevik Party Conspiratorial, vanguard party Leads nascent working class Activists organize “in the workers’ interest” Democratic centralism party discipline Contributed analysis of imperialism as highest stage of capitalism 27

  28. Maoism • Voluntarism • Mass mobilization • Egalitarianism • Self-reliance • “Red” vs. “Expert” • Revolutionary potential of the peasantry 28

  29. Confucianism and Maoism • Mao rejected Confucianism, but notice: • Cultivation of moral/political exemplars • “Redness” not “expertise” • Will/Voluntarism • Where there’s a will there’s a way • Idea that “the key to effective action lies in first transforming the hearts of men” comes from the Confucian tradition. • Un-Marxist 29

  30. Wrap-up • Today—’isms • Next class • Develop theme of nationalism • Bianco: “Nationalism and Revolution” • Introduce theme of revolutionary change • Perry on the Chinese peasantry • Rebellious tradition of peasantry • Predatory vs. protective strategies of peasant survival • Primary source • Mao, “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan” • In lecture: how did the CCP mobilize peasant support?