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Implications of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control for the Traffic Flow. A Simulation Based Analysis. Axel Wolfermann, Stephan Müller. Research at the DLR Institute of Transport Research. analysis of the Transport Demand in private and commercial transport

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implications of cooperative adaptive cruise control for the traffic flow

Implications of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Controlfor the Traffic Flow

A Simulation Based Analysis

Axel Wolfermann, Stephan Müller

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

research at the dlr institute of transport research
Research at theDLR Institute of Transport Research
  • analysis of the Transport Demand in private and commercial transport
  • Model-Based Analysis of the impacts of technical, organisational and political transport related measures
  • development and assessment of Future Scenarios

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

agenda
Agenda

Motivation

IntroductionCooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC)

MethodologySimulation basedassessment

ResultsImpact of CACC on Traffic Flow

Discussion

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

motivation
Motivation

GoodsTransport on theroadisattractive......whentheroadsare not congested

Capacity improvements

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

cooperation adaptive cruise control cacc
Cooperation Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC)

Source: ATZonline

Source: Promote Chauffeur

Source: Promote Chauffeur

Source: IMA, RWTH

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

generell mode of operation of cacc
Generell Mode of Operation of CACC
  • Trucks drivingconnected in a platoon
  • Leadingvehicleisdrivenmanually, followersaresteeredfullyautomated
  • Upto 7 vehiclescanbecoupled

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

research on cacc
Research on CACC
  • USA
    • CaliforniaPATH
  • Europe
    • PROMOTE CHAUFFEUR I/II 1996-2003
      • Demonstration of Technical Feasibility
    • SARTRE (Safe Road Trains for Environment) 2009-2012
  • Germany
    • EFAS (Szenarios of Deployment of Driver Assistance Systems in Goods Traffic) 2001-2002
    • MFG (Preparing Measures for practical Deployment of Driver Assistance Systems in Goods Traffic) 2003-2004
    • KONVOI 2005-2008
      • fieldtests in real trafficflow

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

research on cacc viability
Research on CACC – Viability

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

research on cacc impacts
Research on CACC – Impacts

Source: Bonnet, Chr. ; Fritz, H.:

Fuel Consumption Reduction Experienced by Two PROMOTE-CHAUFFEUR Trucks in Electronic Towbar Operation.

In: 7th World Congress Conference on ITS, 2000

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

research on cacc impacts1
Research on CACC – Impacts

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

research on cacc impacts2
Research on CACC – Impacts

?

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

methodolog y
Impact of CACC on thecapacityMethodology

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

outline
Outline
  • Question:Impact oflinkedroadtrains on thecapacity in relationtopenetration rate, numberoftrucks etc.?
  • Microscopictrafficflowsimulation(VISSIM)withoutandwithequippedtrucks
  • Szenarios
    • motorway, nointersections, threelanes, one-way, slope of 1 %
    • varying…
      • traffic volume
      • number of trucks
      • share of CACC-equipped trucks

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

special view on implemented cacc trucks
Special View on implemented CACC-Trucks
  • Lenghtdistributionoftrucksbased on real data
  • Only Trailer-Trucks and Drawbar Combination Trucks are equipped(~80 % of all trucks on motorway)
  • Number of trucks in platoon uniformly distributed
  • A very long trucksimulatestheplatoon
  • Distance betweenvehiclesdx = 10m

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

calibration of vissim
Calibration of VISSIM
  • Fitting of q-v-curves (notrucks, 20 % trucks, 10 % trucks)
  • benchmark: HBS (German HCM)
  • subsequent modeltuningbydriverbehavior (manyparameters)

Parameter of free riding

Parameter of approximation

Parameter of following

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

calibration process no trucks
Calibration Process: Notrucks

q-k

q-v

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

calibration process 20 trucks
Calibration Process: 20% trucks

q-k

q-v

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

calibration process 10 trucks for validation
Calibration Process: 10 % trucks for validation

q-k

q-v

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

results
Impact of CACC on thecapacityResults

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

results of the simulation
Results of the simulation
  • Effects on Traffic Flow with 50 % CACC-equipped Trucks

CACC hasa significant effect on traffic flow

10 % trucks (50 % CACC)

20 % trucks (50 % CACC)

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

results in detail
Results in Detail
  • upto 6 % highercapacity(trafficvolumeat breakdown speed)
  • insignificant effects for low penetration rate

10 % trucks

20 % trucks

high

CACC share

low

high

CACC share

low

car speed (km/h)

traffic volume (veh/h)

traffic volume (veh/h)

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

discussion
Discussion

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Positive impact on capacityquantified(~5 % for 50 % penetration rate)based on realisticvehicle mix
  • high penetration rate of CACC requiredforsignificantoverallimpact on capacity
  • Tothe positive effectsof CACC
    • Fuel Saving
    • Safety

wecanadd

    • Capacity

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

outlook
Outlook
  • quantitative results can be used to calibrate (macroscopic) models
  • effect of coupling and decoupling yet to be incorporated
  • extension to different vehicle types (passenger cars) possible

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011

slide25
Thank You Very Much For Your Attention!

Dipl.-Ing. Stephan Müller

Dr.-Ing. Axel Wolfermann

German Aerospace Center (DLR)

stephan.mueller@dlr.de

axel.wolfermann@dlr.de

Implications of CACC on Traffic Flow :> Müller, Wolfermann > 4th ECITL Thessaloniki >13th October 2011