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Kidney. 1. Functions: removal of metabolic waste products regulation of the water content of body fluids regulation of pH of body fluids regulation of chemical composition of body fluids. 2. Structure of Kidney. Outer part – renal cortex covered by tough fibrous connective tissue

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kidney
Kidney

1. Functions:

  • removal of metabolic waste products
  • regulation of the water content of body fluids
  • regulation of pH of body fluids
  • regulation of chemical composition of body fluids
2 structure of kidney
2. Structure of Kidney
  • Outer part – renal cortex
  • covered by tough fibrous connective tissue
  • Contain glomeruli, renal corpuscle, PCT,DCT
  • Inner part – renal medulla
  • Contain tubular part of nephron, blood vessels
2 1 nephron
2.1 Nephron
  • Basic unit of structure & function
  • Composed of diff. regions
  • Renal corpuscle/malpighian capsule [bowman’s capsule & glomerulus]
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Descending limb of loop of Henle
slide4
Thin segment
  • Ascending limb loop of Henle
  • Distal convoluted tubule
  • Collecting duct
3 formation of urine
3. Formation of Urine
  • The two kidneys in the body receive between 1100 – 2000 liters (1160 – 2100 quarts or 500 gallons) of blood per day – about the volume of a car!
  • Because the body has only about 5.6 liters of blood, our blood runs through the kidneys to be cleaned about once every four minutes.
slide7
3.1 Ultrafiltration of blood
  • Occurs at the renal capsule
  • Filtration takes place due to high blood pressure
  • Thin perforated endothelium tissue
  • Podocytes of renal capsule have slit pores
  • Except large molecules like proteis, red blood cells and platelets gets filtered [glomerular filtrate].
slide8
3.2 Selective Reabsorption

3.2.1 Proximal convoluted tubule

  • 80% of glomerular filtrate reabsorption occurs
  • Specialized for reasorption
  • Numerous microvilli & basal channels
  • Numerous mitochondria
  • Closeness of blood capillaries
  • Contain carrier protein
slide9
Glucose, amino acids and ions actively transported by carrier protein
  • Diffuse into the blood capillaries and are carried away
  • Water moves along with these substances
slide10
3.2.2 The Loop of Henle
  • Conserve water and produce concentrated urine
  • Loop of Henle with vasa recta and collecting duct create and maintain osmotic gradient in medulla
  • Glomerular filtrate flows in opposite directions in the two limbs of Henle's loop [counter current mechanism]
slide12
3.2.3 Descending loop of Henle
  • Has thin wall
  • Highly permeable to water and permeable to other solutes

3.2.4 Ascending loop of Henle

  • Thick & impermeable to water
  • Sodium & other ions are actively reasorbed
  • Interstitial fluid becomes more concentrated
  • Water from descending limb & collecting duct are drawn
slide13
The water quickly enters the vasa recta and is being carried away.
  • This maintains a high concentration of solutes in the interstitial fluid
  • Filtrate in the ascending limb becomes dilute as it is impermeable to water
slide14
3.2.4 Distal convoluted tubule & collecting duct
  • Fine control of precise amounts of water & salts reasorbed takes place
  • Water diffuses from the collecting duct into the tissue fluid of medulla
  • Urine becomes concentrated
slide15
3.3 Secretion
  • Release of unwanted substances from the blood into the nephron which are not present in glomerular filtrate.
  • Occurs in the convoluted tubules
  • Aminohippuric acid, K+, H+, Creatinine, Phosphate and antibiotics
4 hormonal regulation of kidney
4 Hormonal Regulation of Kidney

4.1 Control of blood solute level

  • The solute potential of blood is controlled by anti-diuretic hormone [ADH].
  • Osmoreceptors in Hypothalamus detect change in blood concentration.
  • Stimulate posterior pituitary gland
  • Pituitary gland release ADH
  • ADH travels through blood to Kidney
  • Increase the permeability of distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to water.
slide17
Less and concentrated urine is produced
  • Once normal blood concentration is achieved, production of ADH stops
  • High intake of water inhibits release of ADH
  • More and dilute urine is produced.
  • Insufficient release of ADH leads to diabetes insupidus.
slide18
4.2 Control of blood sodium level [The renin-angiotensin system]
  • Steady maintenance of blood sodium is brought by Aldosterone.
  • It also influence water reasorption
  • Secreted by adrenal cortex
  • Decrease in blood sodium leads to a decrease in blood volume
slide19
Decrease in blood volume reduces blood pressure
  • Decrease blood pressure and volume stimulates group of secretory cells [macula densa &juxtaglomerular- juxtaglomerular complex] located between DCT & Afferent arteriole
  • It releases an enzyme – Renin
  • Renin activates inactive hormone angiotensin present in blood plasma to active form.
slide20
Active angiotensin performs tow functions:
  • it brings about vasoconstriction raising the arterial pressure
  • it activates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone.
  • Aldosterone stimulate sodium absorption in the gut and reduce loss in sweat
  • Sodium absorption increases the reabsorption of water.
  • Thus it maintains arterial pressure, overall fluid and electrolyte balance.