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Introduction to Accounting and Business. Chapter 1. Learning Objectives. Describe the nature of a business and the role of accounting and ethics in business. Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the nature of a business and the role of accounting and ethics in business.
  • Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.
  • State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.
  • Describe and illustrate how business transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the elements of the accounting equation.
  • Describe the financial statements of a proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.
  • Describe and illustrate the use of the ratio of liabilities to owner’s equity in evaluating a company’s financial condition.
learning objective
Learning Objective

1

Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.

nature of business and accounting
Nature of Business and Accounting
  • A business is an organization in which basic resources (inputs), such as materials and labor, are assembled and processed to provide goods or services (outputs) to customers.
nature of business and accounting1
Nature of Business and Accounting
  • The objective of most businesses is to earn a profit.
  • Profit is the difference between the amounts received from customers for goods or services and the amounts paid for the inputs used to provide the goods or services.
the role of accounting in business
The Role of Accounting in Business
  • Accounting can be defined as an information system that provides reports to users about the economic activities and condition of a business.
the role of accounting in business1
The Role of Accounting in Business
  • The process by which accounting provides information to users is as follows:
    • Identify users.
    • Assess users’ information needs.
    • Design the accounting information system to meet users’ needs.
    • Record economic data about business activities and events.
    • Prepare accounting reports for users.
managerial accounting
Managerial Accounting
  • The area of accounting that provides internal users with information is called managerial accounting or management accounting.
  • Managerial accountants employed by a business are employed in private accounting.
financial accounting
Financial Accounting
  • The area of accounting that provides external users with information is called financial accounting.
  • The objective of financial accounting is to provide relevant and timely information for the decision-making needs of users outside of the business.
  • General-purpose financial statements are one type of financial accounting report that is distributed to external users.
role of ethics in accounting and business
Role of Ethics in Accounting and Business
  • The objective of accounting is to provide relevant, timely information for user decision making.
  • Accountants must behave in an ethical manner so that the information they provide users will be trustworthy and, thus, useful for decision making.
  • Ethics are moral principles that guide the conduct of individuals.
slide14

Role of Ethics in Accounting and Business

The answer to … “What went wrong for these companies?” …involves one or both of these factors. (Exhibit 2)

  • Failure of individual character
  • Firm culture of greed and ethical indifference
opportunities for accountants
Opportunities for Accountants
  • Accountants and their staff who provide services on a fee basis are said to be employed in public accounting.
  • Accountants employed by a business firm, government, or a not-for-profit organization are said to be employed in private accounting.
  • Public accountants who have met a state’s education, experience, and examination requirements may become Certified PublicAccountants (CPAs).
learning objective1
Learning Objective

2

Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

generally accepted accounting principles
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
  • Financial accountants follow generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in preparing reports.
  • Within the U.S., the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has the primary responsibility for developing accounting principles.
generally accepted accounting principles1
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
  • The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), an agency of the U.S. government, has authority over the accounting and financial disclosures for companies whose shares of ownership (stock) are traded and sold to the public.
  • Many countries outside the United States use generally accepted accounting principles adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
business entity concept
Business Entity Concept
  • Under the business entity concept, the activities of a business are recorded separately from the activities of its owners, creditors, or other businesses.
proprietorship
Proprietorship

A proprietorship is owned by one individual.

  • 70% of business entities in the U.S. are proprietorships.
  • They are easy and cheap to organize.
  • Resources are limited to those of the owner.
  • Used by small businesses.
partnership
Partnership

A partnership is similar to a proprietorship except that it is owned by two or more individuals.

  • 10% of business organizations in the U.S. (combined with limited liability companies) are partnerships.
  • Combines the skills and resources of more than one person.
corporation
Corporation

A corporation is organized under state or federal statutes as a separate legal taxable entity.

  • Generates 90% of business revenues.
  • 20% of the business organizations in the U.S.
  • Ownership is divided into shares, called stock.
  • Can obtain large amounts of resources by issuing stock.
  • Used by large businesses.
limited liability company llc
Limited Liability Company (LLC)

A limited liability company (LLC) combines the attributes of a partnership and a corporation.

  • 10% of business organizations in the U.S. (combined with partnerships).
  • Often used as an alternative to a partnership.
  • Has tax and legal liability advantages for owners.
cost concept
Cost Concept
  • Under the cost concept, amounts are initially recorded in the accounting records at their cost or purchase price.
cost concept1
Cost Concept
  • Aaron Publishers purchased a building on February 20, 2012, for $150,000. Other amounts related to this purchased are shown on the next slide.
cost concept2
Cost Concept
  • Price listed by seller on Jan. 1, 2012 $160,000
  • Aaron Publishers’ initial offer to buy on Jan. 31, 2012 140,000
  • Purchase price on Feb. 20, 2012 150,000
  • Estimated selling price on Dec. 31, 2014 220,000
  • Assessed value for property taxes, Dec. 31, 2014190,000

Under the cost concept, Aaron Publishers records the purchase of the building on February 20, 2012, at the purchase price of

$150,000.

The other amounts listed above have no effect on the accounting records.

objectivity concept
Objectivity Concept
  • The objectivity concept requires that the amounts recorded in the accounting records be based on objective evidence.
  • Only the final agreed-upon amount is objective enough to be recorded in the accounting records.
unit of measure concept
Unit of Measure Concept
  • The unit of measure concept requires that economic data be recorded in dollars.
learning objective2
Learning Objective

3

State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation

the accounting equation
The Accounting Equation
  • The resources owned by a business are its assets.
  • The rights of creditors are the debts of the business and are called liabilities.
  • The rights of the owners are called owner’s equity.
  • The equation Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity is called the accounting equation.
the accounting equation1
The Accounting Equation

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity

The resources owned by a business

the accounting equation3
The Accounting Equation

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity

The rights of the owners

learning objective3
Learning Objective

4

Describe and illustrate how business transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the elements of the accounting equation

business transaction
Business Transaction
  • A business transaction is an economic event or condition that directly changes an entity’s financial condition or its results of operations.
transaction a
Transaction A

On November 1, 2013, Chris Clark deposited $25,000 in a bank account in the name of NetSolutions.

transaction b
Transaction B

On November 5, 2013, NetSolutions paid $20,000 for the purchase of land as a future building site.

transaction c
Transaction C

On November 10, 2013, NetSolutions purchased supplies for $1,350 and agreed to pay the supplier in the near future.

transaction c1
Transaction C
  • The liability created by a purchase on account is called an account payable.
  • Items such as supplies that will be used in the business in the future are called prepaid expenses, which are assets.
transaction d
Transaction D

On November 18, 2013, NetSolutions received cash of $7,500 for providing services to customers. A business earns money by selling goods or services to its customers. This amount is called revenue.

transaction d1
Transaction D
  • Revenue from providing services is recorded as fees earned.
  • Revenue from the sale of merchandise is recorded as sales.
  • Other examples of revenue include rent, which is recorded as rent revenue, and interest, which is recorded as interest revenue.
  • An account receivable is a claim against a customer, which is an asset.
transaction e
Transaction E

During the month, NetSolutions spent cash or used up other assets in earning revenue. Assets used in this process of earning revenue are called expenses.

transaction e1
Transaction E

On November 30, 2013, NetSolutions paid the following expenses: wages, $2,125; rent, $800; utilities, $450; and miscellaneous,$275.

transaction f
Transaction F

On November 30, 2013, NetSolutions paid creditors on account, $950.

transaction g
Transaction G

On November 30, 2013, Chris Clark determined that the cost of supplies on hand at the end of the period was $550.

transaction h
Transaction H

On November 30, 2013, Chris Clark withdrew $2,000 from NetSolutions for personal use.

learning objective4
Learning Objective

5

Describe the financial statements of a proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

financial statements
Financial Statements
  • After transactions have been recorded and summarized, reports are prepared for users. The accounting reports providing this information are called financial statements.
income statement
Income Statement
  • The income statement reports the revenues and expenses for a period of time, based on the matching concept.
  • The matching concept is applied by “matching” the expenses incurred during a period with the revenue that those expenses generated.
  • The excess of the revenue over the expenses is called net income, net profit, or earnings. If expenses exceed revenue, the excess is a net loss.
statement of owner s equity
Statement of Owner’s Equity
  • The statement of owner’s equity reports the changes in the owner’s equity for a period of time.
  • It is prepared after the income statement because the net income or net loss for the period must be reported in this statement.
financial statements income statement
Financial Statements – Income Statement

Net income is carried to the statement of owner’s equity.

financial statements statement of owner s equity
Financial Statements – Statement of Owner’s Equity

From the income statement

To the balance sheet

(continued)

balance sheet
Balance Sheet
  • A balance sheet is a list of the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity as of a specific date.
account form
Account Form
  • The account form of a balance sheet lists the assets on the left and the liabilities and owner’s equity on the right. It resembles the basic format of the accounting equation.
financial statements balance sheet
Financial Statements – Balance Sheet

This amount is compared to the net cash flow on the statement of cash flows.

From the statement of owner’s equity

(continued)

statement of cash flows
Statement of Cash Flows
  • A statement of cash flows is a summary of the cash receipts and cash payments for a specific period of time.
    • It consists of three sections: (1) operating activities(2) investing activities(3) financing activities
financial statements statement of cash flows
Financial Statements – Statement of Cash Flows

This amount should match Cashon the balance sheet

(concluded)

cash flows from operating activities
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
  • The cash flows from operating activities section reports a summary of cash receipts and cash payments from operations.
cash flows from investing activities
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
  • The cash flows from investing activities section reports the cash transactions for the acquisition and sale of relatively permanent assets.
cash flows from financing activities
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
  • The cash flows from financing activities section reports the cash transactions related to cash investments by the owner, borrowings, and withdrawals by the owner.
interrelationships among financial statements
Interrelationships Among Financial Statements

Income Statement and Statement of Owner’s Equity

  • Net income or net loss reported on the income statement is also reported on the statement of owner’s equity and any additional investments by the owner during the year.
interrelationships among financial statements1
Interrelationships Among Financial Statements
  • In Exhibit 6, NetSolutions’ net income of $3,050 for November is added to Chris Clark’s investment of $25,000 in the statement of owner’s equity.
interrelationships among financial statements2
Interrelationships Among Financial Statements

Statement of Owner’s Equity and Balance Sheet

  • The owner’s capital at the end of the period is reported on the statement of owner’s equity and is also reported on the balance sheet as owner’s capital.
interrelationships among financial statements3
Interrelationships Among Financial Statements
  • In Exhibit 6, Chris Clark, Capital of $26,050 as of November 30, 2013, on the statement of owner’s equity also appears on the November 30, 2013, balance sheet as Chris Clark, Capital.
interrelationships among financial statements4
Interrelationships Among Financial Statements

Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows

  • The cash reported on the balance sheet is also reported as the end-of-period cash on the statement of cash flows.
interrelationships among financial statements5
Interrelationships Among Financial Statements
  • In Exhibit 6, cash of $5,900 reported on the balance sheet as of November 30, 2013, is also reported on the November statement of cash flows as the end-of-period cash.
learning objective5
Learning Objective

6

Describe and illustrate the use of the ratio of liabilities to owner’s equity in evaluating a company’s financial condition.

ratio of liabilities to owner s equity

Total Liabilities

Total Owner’s Equity (or Total Stockholders’ Equity)

Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity

=

$400

$26,050

Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity

=

= 0.015

Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity