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World War II Battles of 1945. By Olivia Napper & Kaitlyn Truelove. HMS Venturer sinks U-864 February 9 th , 1945 – European Theater. Leaders: British Lieutenant Jimmy Launders German Korvettenkapitän Ralf- Reimar Wolfram Strategy:

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world war ii battles of 1945

World War II Battles of 1945

By Olivia Napper & Kaitlyn Truelove

hms venturer sinks u 864 february 9 th 1945 european theater
HMS Venturer sinks U-864February 9th, 1945 – European Theater
  • Leaders:
    • British Lieutenant Jimmy Launders
    • German Korvettenkapitän Ralf-Reimar Wolfram
  • Strategy:
    • British chose to lay low & turn off their sonar system in order to do a sneak attack
    • Germans employed a zig-zag tactic to evade 3 of the 4 torpedoes
  • Technology:
    • the U-864 submarine and the V-Class submarine (participating in battle)
    • Me-262 jet fighter parts and V-2 missile guidance systems (being sent transported)
    • Enigma radio intercepts, ASDIC sonar system, hydrophone, periscope, torpedoes (used by British)
  • Goal:
    • The British wanted to sink the U-864 to prevent it from supplying the Japanese
    • The Germans wanted to send advanced technology to the Japanese to help them defeat the Americans in the Pacific
  • Result/Effect:
    • The British were successful in intercepting the supplies and sinking the U-864
    • The Germans lost the submarine, supplies, and men
    • Only known account of a submerged submarine sinking another submerged sub
  • Casualties:
    • 73 men aboard the U-864 died
dresden bombing february 13 th 15 th 1945 european theater
Dresden BombingFebruary 13th-15th, 1945 – European Theater
  • Leaders:
    • British Air Marshal Arthur "Bomber" Harris
    • British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
    • American Lieutenant General James Doolittle
  • Strategy:
    • To hinder one of the largest remaining centers for industry in Germany, cutting off access to railway supply lines & artillery factories
    • To attack at night in several waves, with diversionary raids, in order to catch the Germans unprepared
  • Technology:
    • 1000 lb. target indicators (illuminated aiming points for the raid)
    • Lancasters (British heavy night bombing airplanes)
    • High explosives
    • Incendiaries
    • H2X Radar
    • Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses
  • Goal:
    • To bomb German cities and troops in the east
    • To weaken German troops by limiting their access to supplies
    • To alleviate pressure on the Eastern front faced by Russians
  • Result/Effect:
    • Destruction to military hospitals, factories, old buildings, and art centers
    • Raised questions about the necessity of continuous area bombing
    • Controversial act of widespread destruction when the Germans were already close to defeat
  • Casualties:
    • 22,700-25,000 civilians
    • 12,000 historic buildings
    • Several factories
battle of iwo jima february 19 th march 26 th 1945 pacific theater
Battle of Iwo JimaFebruary 19th-March 26th,1945 – Pacific Theater
  • Leaders:
    • Major General Harry Schmidt (Allies)
    • Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher (Allies)
    • Lieutenant General TadamichiKuribayashi (Japanese)
    • Colonel Baron Takeichi Nishi (Japanese)
  • Strategy:
    • Allies: employed naval gunfire, support from air attacks, and armored units of Marines on the ground to gradually gain control of the island
    • Japanese utilized tunnel network and mountainous/ashy terrain to their advantage
  • Technology:
    • Flamethrowers
    • M4A3R3 Sherman tanks
    • P-51 Mustangs
    • B-29 Superfortresses
  • Goal:
    • Allies: to invade the island so it would act as a warning example of Allied bombing raids and secure control of a Japanese base to use for future bomber landings
    • Japanese: to inflict as many casualties before losing control of the island and dissuade the Allies from invading
  • Result/Effect:
    • Lessons were learned that would be helpful during the Okinawa campaign
    • The island was used for American bomber landings (2,251 landings in the final months of the war)
    • The only battle with more American casualties than Japanese
  • Casualties:
    • 17,845-21,570 Japanese losses
    • 6,821 American losses
    • 19,217 Americans wounded
bridge at remagen march 7 th 8 th 1945 european theater
Bridge at RemagenMarch 7th-8th,1945 – European Theater
  • Leaders:
    • American General William Hodge
    • American Lieutenant Karl Timmerman
    • American Lieutenant Hugh Mott
    • American Sergeant Eugene Dorland
    • American Sergeant John Reynolds
    • American Sergeant Alexander A. Drabik
    • German Captain WilliBratge
    • Adolf Hitler
  • Strategy:
    • Allies: stationed men overlooking the bridge so that when the Americans advanced and the Germans detonated explosives, the men could provide cover as some men cut remaining wires that were to demolish the bridge
    • Germans: demolished all bridges across the Rhine River and prepared to destroy the Ludendorff Bridge before the Allies advanced
  • Technology:
    • 30-foot crater
    • Tank dozers
    • Other fuses/explosives
    • V-2 rockets
  • Goal:
    • Allies: to cross the remaining Ludendorff Bridge into the town of Remagen to launch an attack
    • Germans: to destroy all the bridges over the Rhine river and cut off access to Germany for the Allies
  • Result/Effect:
    • The Americans were successful in advancing across the bridge and foiling German attempts to destroy it
    • 8,000 Americans crossed the bridge immediately
    • The Germans launched counterattacks, continued attempts to demolish the bridge (unsuccessfully), and arrested/executed officers in charge of destroying the bridge
  • Casualties:
    • 28 Americans died, 93 American engineers wounded when the bridge finally collapsed (March 17th)
battle of okinawa march 7 th june 21 st 1945 pacific theater
Battle of OkinawaMarch 7th- June 21st,1945 – Pacific Theater
  • Leaders:
    • American Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz
    • American Admiral Raymond Spruance
    • American Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner, Jr.
    • American General Joseph Stilwell
    • British Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser
    • Japanese General Mitsuru Ushijima
    • Japanese Lieutenant General Isamu Cho
    • Japanese Vice Admiral Minoru Ota
  • Strategy:
    • Allies: combined fighting on the island with support from naval forces and air forces
    • Japanese: drafting thousands of civilians to add to the naval forces, creating a reserve system in the north and south of the island
  • Technology:
    • British carriers
    • Japanese battleship, Yamato
    • Allied naval vessels & aircrafts
  • Goal:
    • Allies: to secure an island to use as a base for air operations during the invasion of the Home Islands after already securing Iwo Jima
    • Japanese: defend the island of Okinawa and attempt to maintain a foothold on these island bases (prevent Allied control)
  • Result/Effect:
    • Americans succeeded in capturing the island
    • Okinawa become an asset for the Allies in terms of place for airfields, anchoring fleets, and staging troops
    • One of the longest and most expensive battles in the Pacific
  • Casualties:
    • 12,520 American deaths; 49,151 American casualties
    • 110,071 Japanese deaths; 117,472 Japanese casualties
operation ten go april 7 th 1945 pacific theater
Operation Ten-GoApril 7th,1945 – Pacific Theater
  • Leaders:
    • Allies: Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher
    • Japan: Vice Admiral Seiichi Ito
  • Strategy:
    • Operation Ten-Go called for the battleship Yamato, the light cruiser Yahagi, and eight destroyers to defend Okinawa.
    • Once at Okinawa, the ship would be destroyed and the crew would fight on foot.
  • Technology:
    • The battleship Yamato
    • The light cruiser Yahagi
    • Japanese destroyers
  • Goal:
    • The goal of Ten-Go was for the operation to remove the American involvement from the army’s attack on Okinawa.
  • Result/Effect:
    • The Yahagi was hit by 7 torpedos and 12 bombs before sinking.
    • The Yamato was hit by at least 8 torpedos and 15 bombs, then ordered engine rooms to be flooded to balance the ship.
    • Ito ordered the operation to end and told the crew to leave the ship, right before it sank.
  • Casualties:
    • 3,700–4,250 Japanese died among the Yamato, Yahagi, and four Japanese destroyers
    • 12 Americans and 10 aircraft died
battle of the seelow heights april 16 th 19 th 1945 european theater
Battle of the Seelow HeightsApril 16th-19th, 1945 – European Theater
  • Leaders:
    • Soviet: Marshal GeorgyZhukov
    • Soviet: Joseph Stalin
    • German:Colonel General Gotthard Heinrici
    • German: Lieutenant General Hasso von Manteuffel
    • German: Lieutenant General Theodor Busse
  • Strategy:
    • Stalin supported Zhukov’s plan to assault against the Seelow Heights from the Soviet bridgehead over the Oder River.
    • The Germans strategy was to defend the heights. Heinriciconstructed three defensive lines to defend the area.
  • Technology:
    • Artillery
    • Katyusha rockets
    • 2,655 tanks, 8,983 guns, and 1,401 rocket launchers- Constructed by Zhukov
  • Goal:
    • The Soviet’s goal was to bombard the German Defensive line.
    • The German’s goal was to defend their area and to try and stop the Soviet’s bombardment.
  • Result/Effect:
    • The Soviets defeated the German’s defense
    • The Germans retreated from lack of defensive line, heading west to Berlin.
  • Casualties:
    • Over 30,000 Soviets killed
    • 12,000 Germans killed
battle of berlin april 16 th may 2 nd 1945 european theater
Battle of BerlinApril 16th-May 2nd, 1945 – European Theater
  • Leaders:
    • Soviets:
      • Marshal GeorgyZhukov
      • Marshal Konstantin Rokossovky
      • Marshal Ivan Konev
      • General VasilyChuikov
    • Germans:
      • General Gotthard Heinrici
      • General Kurt von Tippelskirch
      • Field Marshal Ferdinand Schörner
      • Lieutenant General HellmuthReymann
      • General HelmuthWeidling
      • Major General Erich Bärenfänger
      • Adolf Hitler
  • Strategy:
    • The Soviet’s strategy was not to defend along the Oder River, but defend the Seelow Heights east of Berlin.
    • German’s strategy was to defend against the Soviet’s
  • Technology:
    • Artillery
    • Berlin S-Bahn railway
  • Goal:
    • Soviet’s goal was to move westward towards Berlin to be offensive against the Germans.
    • Germany’s goal was for the combined forces to defend Berlin
  • Result/Effect:
    • The Soviets take over and are more offensive against Germany.
    • Germans attempt to escape along different routes, but only those that passed through Tiergarten escaped the Soviets.
    • Hitler ends up killing himself, and Germany surrenders.
  • Casualties:
    • Soviets: lost 81,116 killed/missing and 280,251 wounded
    • Germans: 458,080 killed and 479,298 captured
    • Civilians: 125,000 killed
operations manna chowhound april 29 th may 8 th 1945 european theater
Operations Manna & ChowhoundApril 29th-May 8th, 1945 – European Theater
  • Leaders:
    • Allies: Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower
    • British: Prime Minister Winston Churchill
    • German: Reichskommissar Arthur Seyss-Inquart (Governor of the Netherlands)
    • German: Adolf Hitler
  • Strategy:
    • The Germans cut food shipments to Dutch cities because of strikes, in order to weaken their opponents.
    • The Allies strategy was to use aircrafts as a way to deliver food to other countries.
  • Technology:
    • BBC and Radio Orange- used to broadcast messages
    • Lancaster Bombers
    • American B-17s
  • Goal:
    • Germany’s primary goal is to weaken their opponent.
    • The allies goal is to supply food to the places that German cut off the supply to and win the war.
  • Result/Effect:
    • Countries formed an air relief truce with Great Britain, losing 3 US aircrafts.
    • Germany surrendered on May 8th
    • Operations Manna and Chowhound delivered 6,680 and 4,000 tons of food.
  • Casualties:
    • No human casualties listed.
    • Three aircrafts lost: 2 from a collision, and 1 from an engine fire
sources
Sources

http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/world-war-2-battles.htm