Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.

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# Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Mass : is the amount of material. Mass : is what gives an object the properties of weight and inertia. Weight : is a force and is due to the pull of gravity on the object. Inertia : resistance of an object to change its motion.

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Presentation Transcript
Matteris anything that has mass and occupies space.

Mass : is the amount of material.

Mass: is what gives an object the properties of weight and inertia.

Weight : is a force and is due to the pull of gravity on the object.

Inertia: resistance of an object to change its motion.

Classification of Matter

Elements

Compounds

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Pure substances

Matter

Mixtures

Pure substances

Matter that has uniform an unchanging composition is called a substance, also known as pure substance.

Pure substances are made of only one type of matter.

There are two types of pure substances: Elements and compounds.

Properties of matter

Physical properties: Can be observed or measured

without changing the

sample’s composition.

Chemical properties:

The ability of a substance to

combine with or change into

one or more other substances.

To observe a chemical property

the composition of the matter

observed must be changed.

Examples of properties

Physical properties: density, color, odor, taste, shape, melting point, boiling point, etc.

Chemical properties: the ability of a substance to form rust, the ability of an element to combine chemically with other element, etc.

What physical properties do you observe in copper?

Copper is reddish

with a bright metallic luster.

It is malleable, ductile

and

a good conductor of heat and electricity

http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Cu/key.html

Density = 8.92 g/ml

Melting point : 1085oC

Boiling point: 2570oC

What color do you see? Why? Is this a chemical property?
• Copper forms green copper carbonate when in contact with moist air.
• Copper forms new substances with nitric acid
• Copper forms a deep blue solution with ammonia

http://www.pampetty.com/symbols.htm

Extensive properties:

Depend on the amount of matter.

Examples: mass, length, volume, etc..

Intensive properties:

Are independent of the amount

of substance present. Examples:

density, melting point,

boiling point, etc.

Properties of matter
States of matter

No definite: occupy all the available space.

definite

definite

No definite: take

the shape of the

container.

No definite: take the

shape of the container

and occupy all the

available space.

definite

Less closely packed

than solids and not

rigidly held in place

Very tightly

packed

Very far appart

from each other

Virtually

Incompressible

None:

Incompressible

Easily compressed

A little when

heated

Tend to expand

when heated

Expand a lot

when heated

Move past each

other.

Liquids flow.

Constant ramdom

motion.

Gases flow.

Very little.

Solids can´t flow

Physical Changes

Physical Change:A change in the form of a substance, but not in its chemical composition; chemical bonds are not broken (or formed) in a physical change.

Examples: bend, grind, crumple, split, crush, melt, dissolve, cut, condense, evaporate, sublimate, freeze etc.

Chemical Changes

Chemical Change:The change of substances into other substances through a reorganization of atoms.

A chemical changeis a process

that involves one or more substances changing into new substances.

A chemical change is referred as a chemical reaction.

Examples of chemical changes

Water is broken into hydrogen and oxygen.

Iron reacts with oxygen to form rust..

Sodium explodes when it reacts with water.

Some clues may indicate that a chemical change ( chemical reaction) is taking place
• Formation of a gas (bubbles)
• Formation of a precipitate (solid formed)
• Color change
• Change in temperature
• Other forms of energy emitted
• In general, the products have different properties
• than the original substances.
The law of conservation of mass.
• Mass is neither created nor destroyed during
• chemical reaction.
• Massreactants = Massproducts

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794), the father of modern chemistry, was the first to use the analytical balance to monitor chemical reactions. He explained the nature of combustion.

He also studied the thermal decomposition of mercury (II) oxide.

Problem: In an experiment, 10.00g of red mercury (II) oxide powder is placed in an open flask and heated until it is converted in to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. The liquid mercury has a mass of 9.26 g. What is the mass of oxygen formed in the reaction?

ReactantProducts

Mercury (II) oxide  Mercury + oxygen

10.00 g 9.26 g ?

Prob. 6 and 7 p. 65

8 and 9 (HW)

Pure substances:they cannot be physically separated into their components.
• Ways to identify pure substances:
• By some properties like density, boiling or freezing points or others.
• Using the heating or cooling curves.
Description of the heating curve of a pure subsatance

Pure substances increase gradually their temperature until the melting point is reached. The energy is used to increase the kenetic energy of the molecules.

Then the temperature remains constant during the whole melting process. The energy is used to overcome the forces that keep the particles together.

Description of the heating curve of a pure subsatance

Only when all the solid has changed to liquid the temperature starts increasing gradually again(The energy is used to increase the kinetic energy of the particles) until the boiling point is reached.

Description of the heating curve of a pure subsatance

Then the temperature remains constant during the whole boiling process (The energy is used to overcome the forces to separate the particles even more).

Only when all the liquid has changed to gas the temperature starts increasing again (Once more, the energy is used to increase the kenetic energy of the particles) .

Heating Curves of Mixtures

Mixtures, on the other hand, keep increasing the temperature even during the boiling process.

The boiling and melting points of a mixture change respect to the pure substance.

For example a water solution will have higher boiling point and lower melting point than pure water.

Mixtures

Mixture:

matter that can be separeted physically into components parts.

They are made of two or more types

of substances.

Methods to separate the components of a mixture:

precipitation,decantation, filtration and distillation.

Classification of Matter

Elements

Compounds

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Pure substances

Matter

Mixtures

Homogeneus mixtures

Homogeneous mixtures: is a mixture in which the components are evenly distributed among each other. You can’t see the component parts.

Homo means the same throughout.

It has a constant composition throughout.

Homogenous mixtures are also called SOLUTIONS

Examples:Salt dissolved in water, sugar dissolved in water, apple juice, tea, copper (II) sulfate solution in water, alloys....

http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~chm2040/Notes/Chapter_1/substances.html

States of matter in solution

States of matter in solution (remember that a solution is an homogeneous mixture)

Example

gas in gas

air ( N2, O2 , Ar, CO2 , other gases)

gas in liquid

soda pop (CO2 in water)

liquid in liquid

gasoline (a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds)

solid in liquid

Filtrated sea water ( NaCl and other salts in water)

gas in solid

liquid in solid

dental amalgams (mercury in silver)

solid in solid

alloys ( brass, (Cu/Zn), sol-der (Sn/Pb), Steel (Fe/C))

heterogeneous mixtures

Heterogeneous mixture :the components are not evenly distributed among each other. An heterogeneous mixture has two or more distinct phases that are usually detectable. This type of mixture does NOT have uniform properties.

Hetero means: Regions have different properties

Heterogeneous mixtures that look like solutions can be distinguished because they scatter light (Tyndall effect).

Examples: Sand water, oil and water, milk, sulfur and iron, granite, blood...

http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~chm2040/Notes/Chapter_1/substances.html

Solutions, suspensions and colloids

Water Solutions are transparent. You can see through them.

The mixture remains stable and does not separate after standing for any period of time.

The particles are so small they cannot be separated by normal filtration.

A solution may have a "color" but it will still be transparent.

Colloids
• Colloids are mixtures with particle sizes that consist of clumps of molecules. The particles have dimensions between 2 to 1000 nanometers.
• The colloid looks homogeneous to the naked eye. Fog and milk are examples of colloids.
• Colloids frequently appear "murky" or "opaque".
• The particles are large enough to scatter light. You have experience with the way fog interacts with the light from car headlights.
• Colloids generally do not separate on standing. They are not separated by filtration
Suspensions
• Suspensions are mixtures with particles that have diameters greater than 1000 nm, 0.000001 meter.
• The size of the particles is great enough so they are visible to the naked eye. Blood and aerosol sprays are examples
• Suspensions are "murky" or "opaque".
• They do not transmit light.
• Suspensions separate on standing.
• The mixture of particles can be separated by filtration.

Energy: The ability to cause changes in matter

Law of conservation of energy: There is no loss or gain of energy. Energy changes from one form to another.

During nuclear reactions matter can change into energy and viceversa: E=mc2

Pure substances are made of only one type of matter. There are two types of pure substances: elements and compounds.

• Elements:
• Pure substances composed of a single type of atom
• All the elements are included in the periodic table.

Compounds : pure substances made of more than one type of atom. Compounds can be broken into two or more elements by chemical means.