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Business Process Management and Semantic Technologies. B. Ramamurthy. Plan for today. Web Interface Design: Lets analyze an example from Netbeans samples Mid term review Chapter 10: relating SOA BPMSemantic Technologies. Introduction.

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plan for today
Plan for today
  • Web Interface Design: Lets analyze an example from Netbeans samples
  • Mid term review
  • Chapter 10: relating SOABPMSemantic Technologies
  • Business Process Management refers to activities performed by enterprises to optimize and adapt their business processes.
  • Business process (BP) is an activity in a company that uses resources and can involve the activities of different departments.
  • BP has been there for sometime but new impetus has been brought by BPMS, software tools, etc.
  • Management of BP involves their design, execution and monitoring.
business process management
Business Process Management
  • BP Design: capture of existing processes and repositories to store process models.
  • BP Execution: uses interfaces and human intervention to execute the defined processes.
  • BP Monitoring: involves tracking of individual processes so that their state can be observed.
  • Traditional BPM is confined to the boundaries of a business.
  • The chapter defines a Collaborative Business Model (CBM) that extends BPM beyond the boundaries of a business.

 exploits semantic web services composition engines to do so.

design of collaborative processes
Design of Collaborative Processes



Process I

Partner 1














Process II

Partner II

designing cbp
Designing CBP
  • The authors recommend using (semantic) Web Services (WS) composition to semi-automatically design a Collaborative Business Process (CBP).
  • Lifting: transforming BP to WS
  • Lowering: transforming WS to BP
semantic web services sws composition
Semantic Web Services (SWS) Composition
  • A semantic WS composition (service-enabling) works on semantically enriched descriptions of Web Services.
web service definition
Web service definition
  • Web service description is in a WSDL
  • WSDL consists of the definition of independent, atomic and stateless operations
  • Operations, messages, ports and data types
  • Data types are in XML schema (XSD)
  • Messages are input and output messages
  • WSDL definition will facilitate technical integration of services.
  • Observe that WSDL does not have any information about behavioral semantics of a web service’s operation
semantic ws definition
Semantic WS definition
  • The components of the semantic web service definition include a formal description of WS functionality, its inputs and outputs and its behavioral requirements.
  • The formal definition of SWS includes an annotation which is expressed by using ontology.
  • Ontology consists of concepts, realtions and axioms.
sws definition languages
SWS definition Languages
  • OWL-S
  • WSMO (WS Modeling Ontology)
  • WSDL-S
  • Each WS description in WSMO contains a capability
  • The capability describes WS’s functionality
  • It is used for discovery and selection of appropriate services for a specific task as a WSMO goal.
  • Choreography in WSMO describes behavioral requirements. This is different from choreography in WS-Choreography standard.
sws composition
SWS Composition
  • The business partners participating in the composition provide SWS : in, out and capabilities in ontological terms.
  • These are fed into the WS composition engine.
  • Semantic engine looks for equivalent concepts in the behavior descriptions and connects them.
  • After identifying matching concepts, the composition engine connects fitting input and output.
  • Result of this process is:
    • Business processes that contains steps from both partners
    • Interconnection via mapping activities
    • Other inputs and outputs that could not be connected as above
    • Composition is successful when there are no more unconnected input and output.
  • Transforming process description into format used by SWS composition engine.
  • This is achieved by mapping the process descriptions to the elements of an ontology.
  • Two parts: lifting in and out messages and lifting process description
  • A very nice formal description is given in p.214 and Fig. 10.2
  • Lets understand this.
lifting wsdl messages
Lifting WSDL messages










Schema matching


lifting contd
Lifting (contd.)
  • The architecture of the schema lifting component that creates the alignment between XML schema and the ontology
  • This takes XML schema and domain ontology as input and yields an alignment Aso
  • N matchers are used:
    • distance matcher
    • Synonym matcher
    • Data type matcher
    • Linguistic matcher
    • Related entities matcher
  • The outputs of matching then are aggregated to provide SWS.
  • The CBP is defined as the process steps of the respective partners plus their appropriate interconnections.
  • This step is quite straight forward.
  • The composition did not alter the original process structure in the partners.
execution of cbp
Execution of CBP
  • We know how to generate CBP
  • How to execute CBP?
  • Fig. 10.5
  • Fig. 10.6 shows examples of mapping extraction
  • Types of rules used in mapping
    • Move, join, merge, split, replicate
mapping rules
Mapping rules




Lifting from source schema

Lifting from target schema

deployment and execution of partner processes
Deployment and execution of Partner processes
  • See fig. 10.9
  • Two businesses execute the CBP designed by invoking the WS offered by the partners
  • Each partner has an execution environment controlling only the execution of their respective CBP.
  • Mediation is a important process during execution.
  • We studied the design of CBP.
  • Lets examine the implementation details.
  • Design using Maestro which is a part of SAP Research business process management tool suite.
  • Each partner can create its own business process.
    • Can be exported, discussed and interconnected with partner’s processes.
    • Can be manually adapted (connected if needed)
    • Workflow orchestrations can be created using a special tool called ILOG
    • Lifting  ILOG  Orchestration + Alignment  Lowering
    • WSDL and WS are deployed using Johnson, Gabriel and Nehemiah tools
    • Finalization is needed before actual deployment in runtime.
demo scenario
Demo Scenario
  • Carrier Shipper Process
  • Involves three parties: a customer, a shipper and a carrier
  • Fig. 10.10 – 10.13
  • Interfaces, notifications. Contractual agreements, fulfillments need to be related.
cost benefit comparison
Cost-benefit comparison
  • Agreement on common business terms
  • Design CBPs using heterogeneous business processes
  • Executing CBPs using heterogeneous message formats
  • All these save time and effort in manual processing transformations