WHAT ROOM FOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENTIN “POST-PRIMARY EDUCATION”?A LOOK AT SELECTED COUNTRIES Robert PalmerUniversity of Edinburgh / NORRAGRob.Palmer@ed.ac.uk IIEP, Paris, 14th November 2007
What room for skills development in PPE? • ten countries • seven in SSA (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, S.Africa, Tanzania and Uganda) • three in Asia (India, China and Vietnam)
To what degree have these selected countries appropriated – if at all – the terminology of PPE & skills development in policy documents? • Is their use of skills development or PPE different from that being used by some agencies? • Do most Ministries of Education/Labour talk about post-primary & mean just lower secondary education only? Or skills development & mean just formal TVET? Or do they use skills development and PPE in a broader sense – like a few of the agencies.
Extent to which selected countries use the terminology of post-primary education • four countries reviewed (Rwanda, Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda) use the PPE terminology to varying degrees. • The question is how these countries use the terminology and how similar – or not – is their use of it to the ADEA definition
Eg.1 • Rwanda - PPE appears to refer only to formal lower secondary school • but Education Sector Strategic Plan (2006 – 2010) uses the PBET terminology. Since Rwanda’s definition of basic education includes components of skills training, PBET should logically include upper secondary and tertiary as well as non-formal skills development at a higher level.
Eg.2 • Kenya Education Sector Support Programme does not use the PPE terminology, but used by government ministers. E.g. Speech made by Ast. Minister for Primary Education (Feb 07), clarified what PPE includes: ‘Post-Primary Education refers to more than just “secondary school.” It includes all learning opportunities for adolescents: -formal schooling in lower and upper secondary that may be followed by higher education; -vocational and technical education, and job training; -life skills, health education, and income generation programmes.’ => Similar to the ADEA definition of PPE
Eg.3 • Uganda - PPE term appears to be most openly embraced; since 2002 the govt has used ‘post-primary education and training’ (PPET) in major policy documents • Ugandan definition of PPET broadly similar to that of ADEA; general secondary education and business, technical and vocational education and training (BTVET) are covered (BTVET covers a wide range of formal and nonformal TVET, delivered both through institutions and on the job)
Extent to which selected countries use the terminology of skills development • Review of 10 countries shows that most (9/10) continue to use the older terminology (e.g. VET, TVET)
Table 1. Terminologies used in policy documents for technical and vocational skills development by selected countries
… only S.Africa uses the term ‘skills development’. • - may be a reflection of the dominance of industry, unions and the Department of Labour - who use this language.
While the other countries continue to use the older terminology of TVET (formal TVET), at least three of these countries reviewed (Ethiopia, Ghana & Uganda) use a more expanded definition of TVET which is similar to the ‘skills development’ terminology; • in other words in these countries there is recognition that TVET refers to skills that can be acquired formally or informally, in the public or private sectors, in schools, institutions and on the job.
The degree to which countries’ emphasize skills development at the post-primary level • How is skills development (SD) at the post-primary level defined in these countries from a policy-as-practice perspective? • => scope for future research to examine how the different terms, with their different meanings, translate into proportions of support for the different areas of SD at the country level. Could look at DP supported activities and country activities.
Lack of data on the issue… • Skills development takes so many different forms, in different settings, of different lengths in different countries, and is under so many different ministries, comparative data on SD systems are difficult to compile. • UNESCO (UNEVOC) data on % of post primary (secondary) school enrolments in TVE. • But no similar comparative information on SD in ministries other than education, or on non-formal or informal TVET (esp IAT).