the rise of food production humanity s ecological turning point
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
The Rise of Food Production Humanity’s Ecological Turning Point

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 41

The Rise of Food Production Humanity’s Ecological Turning Point - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 491 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Rise of Food Production Humanity’s Ecological Turning Point. Effects of Food Production. More Available Calories per Person Supports Larger Populations Supports Large Domestic Animals Permits More Frequent Births Permits Storage of Food Surpluses Introduces Diseases of Dense Populations.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Rise of Food Production Humanity’s Ecological Turning Point' - medwin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
effects of food production
Effects of Food Production
  • More AvailableCalories per Person
  • SupportsLarger Populations
  • SupportsLarge Domestic Animals
  • PermitsMore Frequent Births
  • PermitsStorage of Food Surpluses
  • IntroducesDiseases of Dense Populations
calories and population
Calories and Population

By selecting and growing food humans eat up to 90% of an acre’s calories vs 0.1%

Food production increased the number of humans supported by a given territory by orders of magnitude, 10 or even 100 times more people.

livestock
Livestock

Domestic livestock provide:

Meat Milk

Fertilizer Power

  • Livestock power greatly expanded the area of cultivatable land. (N. American Plains)
  • Large mammals become transport modes (horses & chariots)
food surplus
Food Surplus

Permits non-food producing vocations:

  • Kings
  • Soldiers
  • Artisans
  • Priests
  • Scribes

Beginning of social organization

(Think Cutting Tools)

slide6
Most domesticated plants and animals differ from their wild ancestors. Morphological characteristics such as: Smaller (cows and sheep) or Larger (chickens and apples) sizes, smoother and thinner seed coats (peas) are attested to by the remains at numerous known and dated archeological sites.
carbon dating a review
Carbon Dating – A Review
  • Constant Decay of C14 into N14.
  • C14 isotope made in atmosphere by cosmic rays.
  • C14 taken up by plants in constant ratio with C12, 1 to a Million.
  • C14 half life of 5,700 years
  • C14/C12 Ratio = Age, up to 40,000
two problems with carbon dating
Two Problems with Carbon Dating
  • Until 1980s, the process required a lot of material (few grams)
    • Solved by Mass Acceleration
    • Result: re-dating New World food production
  • Atmospheric C14/C12 Ratio Fluctuates
    • Solved by calibration with tree rings
    • Result: re-dating Clovis period events
how to determine place of domestication
How to Determine Place of Domestication

The Problem of Chickpeas

  • Domestication occurs in area of wild ancestry (Barley)
  • Plot spread of archeological remains of domesticated variety (Emmer Wheat)
how can hunter gatherers respond
How can Hunter Gatherers Respond

Adoption

Egypt

Khosian South Africa

Southwestern United States

Displacement

Northwest U.S.

Siberia

Australia

was hunter gathering so bad
Was Hunter/Gathering So Bad?

Only today do peoples of the developed world raise little or none of their own food.

Time budget studies indicate that hunter gatherers may have spent less time obtaining food than farmers.

Remains of the first farmers were smaller, less well-nourished, more diseased and died younger than hunter gatherers.

alternative strategies
Alternative Strategies
  • No sharp distinction between nomadic hunter/gatherers and sedentary farmers
  • H/Gs populated world by 13,000 BC
  • Some H/Gs were sedentary Palestine, Japan, Peru
  • Some Sedentary H/Gs never adopted food production NW U.S., SE Australia
  • H/Gs traveled known seasonal routes and partially farmed along the way Apache
alternative strategies ii
Alternative Strategies - II
  • Hunter Gatherers already practiced proto farming both unintentionally (latrines) and intentionally (food selections)
  • There is a portfolio of collecting and farming activities that took thousands of years to build up before a decisive shift (shelling, threshing, grinding, weeding)
rise of food production 5 factors
Rise of Food Production - 5 Factors
  • Decline of Wild Foods (exterminations)
  • Increased Availability of Domesticatable Wild Plants due to Climate Change
  • Accumulation of Food Processing Methods, Technologies, Implements and Facilities
  • Two-way Link of Population Density and Food autocatalytic process (farmer paradox)
  • Geographic Displacement of Hunter/Gatherers
what did farmers select on
What did Farmers Select On?

Size – Berries, Peas, Wheat

Taste – Almond, Lima Beans, Potatoes

Fleshiness/Seedlessness – Squash, Bananas, Pumpkins

Oily Seeds – Olives, Sesame, Poppy

Long Fibers – Cotton, Flax and Hemp

non obvious precursors
Non-obvious Precursors
  • Poppable & Shatterable

180-degree evolutionary turn

  • Seed Germination Inhibitors

sow / grow / harvest / sow

  • Independent Reproduction

Dioecious & hermaphrodites

3 stages of crop development
3 Stages of Crop Development
  • Wheat, Barley, Peas
    • Already edible
    • Easy to grow
    • Fast harvest
    • Storable
    • Self-pollinating
    • Little genetic change required
3 stages ii
3 Stages - II

2. Fruit and Nut Trees

  • Olives, Figs, Dates
  • Easy to grow from cuttings or seeds
  • No Harvest for 3 – 10 years
  • Required True Sedentary Lifestyle
3 stages iii
3 Stages - III

3. Fruit Trees

  • Apples, Pears, Plums
  • Requires Grafting
  • Grafting Requires Conscious Experimentation
  • Requires Cross-Pollination
slide20
“Thus by Roman times, almost all of today’s leading crops were being cultivated somewhere in the world.”

Not another major food plant despite all our technology and power

what to domesticate
What to Domesticate?
  • 200,000 flowering plants in the world
  • Only a few thousand are humanly edible
  • Only a few hundred were domesticated
  • Only 12 species accounts for 80% of the world’s tonnage of agricultural products
  • Only 5 cereals supply 50% of the worlds daily caloric intake
the big 12
Cereal Grasses

Wheat

Corn

Barley

Rice

Sorghum

Pulses, Tubers, Etc…

Soybean

Potato

Manioc

Sweet Potato

Sugarcane

Sugar Beet

Banana

The Big 12
the fertile crescent

The Fertile Crescent

Where it all begins

where when production began
Southwest Asia

China

Mesoamerica

Andes

Eastern U.S.

?Sahel

?Tropical W. Africa

?Ethiopia

?New Guinea

8,500 BC

by 7,500 BC

by 3,500 BC

by 3,500 BC

2,500 BC

by 5,000 BC

by 3,000 BC

?

7,000 BC?

Where & When Production Began
fertile crescent
Fertile Crescent
  • Applies to crescent shaped region of the highlands above the Tigris and Euphrates valley.
  • First, not only of food production, but also cities, writing, empires and civilization.
  • Ancient climate was cooler and wetter than today.
why the fertile crescent
Why the Fertile Crescent?
  • Mediterranean Climate
  • Wild ancestors of many crops were already abundant and productive
  • Local flora contain a high % of self-pollinators that occasionally cross-pollinate
  • First 8 crops were self-pollinators, and the 3 cereals were high in protein
but why this mediterranean climate zone
But Why this Mediterranean Climate Zone?
  • Biggest such climate zone on the planet, leading to a higher diversity of wild plants
  • Has the greatest climatic variation
  • Wide range of altitudes and topographies
  • Wealth of big mammals

Out of 1,000’s of grasses, 56 species have 10-times median seed size. Of these 32 are found in the Fertile Crescent

the 8 fertile crescent founder crops
Cereals Grasses

Einkorn Wheat

Emmer Wheat

Barley

Pulses

Lentil

Pea

Chickpea

Bitter Vetch

Other

Flax

The 8 Fertile Crescent Founder Crops
  • Plus, Big 4 domestic Animals
  • Cow
  • Pig
  • Sheep
  • Goat

This is it, the whole nutritious package

getting specific
Getting Specific

Tell Abu Hureyra in Euphrates Valley, Syria

  • Between 10,000 and 9,000 BC
  • Collected 700 samples of 500 seeds from 70 plant species
  • Villagers collected 157 seed species from elsewhere, arranged in 3 groups
  • Many local species were not among the seed inventory.
  • They were not farmers
anna karenina principle

Anna Karenina Principle

For most things, success actually requires avoiding many separate possible causes of failure.

All domesticate animals are alike, all non-domestic animals are not, in their own way.

benefits of big mammals
Benefits of Big Mammals
  • Meat
  • Milk & Milk Products
  • Fertilizer
  • Land transport
  • Leather & Wool
  • Military Assault Vehicles
  • Plow Traction
  • Germs (?)

What is Big?

Over 100 pounds

Yes, there are others: ducks, geese, chickens, dogs, cats, rabbits

what is a domesticated animal
What is a Domesticated Animal?

“An animal selectively bred in captivity and thereby modified from its wild ancestors for use by humans, who control breeding and food supply.”

It involves human selection of individuals and the automatic evolutionary response to the altered forces of natural selection

Domesticated and tamed are not the same thing

there are only 14 species of big mammals domesticated before the 20 th century
The Major Five:

Cow

Sheep

Goat

Pig

Horse

The Minor Nine:

Arabian Camel

Bactrian Camel

Llama / Alpaca

Donkey

Reindeer

Water Buffalo

Yak

Banteng

Gaur

There are only 14 species of big mammals domesticated before the 20th Century
where do they come from
Where do they come from?

Continent Candidates Domesticates

Eurasia 72 13

Africa 51 0

Americas 24 1

Australia 1 0

148 14

when did they join us
When did they join us?

Dog 10,000 BC SW Asia, China, N. Am.

Sheep 8,000 BC SW Asia

Goat 8,000 BC SW Asia

Pig 8,000 BC SW Asia, China

Cow 6,000 BC SW Asia, India, N. Africa

Horse 4,000 BC Ukraine

Donkey 4,000 BC Egypt

Water Buffalo 4,000 BC China (?)

Llama 3,500 BC Andes

Bactrn. Camel 2,500 BC Central Asia

Arabian Camel2,500 BC Arabia

6 criteria for domestication
6 Criteria for Domestication
  • Diet – 10 to 1 ratio pounds food to meat
  • Growth Rate – Elephant, Gorilla
  • Captive Breeding – Cheetah, Vicuňa
  • Nasty Disposition – Grizzly Bear, Hippos
  • Don’t Panic – Deer, Antelope, Gazelle!!
  • Social Structure: Herds

Dominance Hierarchy

Overlapping Range

slide39
Plant and Animal Domestication provide the basis for human civilization
  • Plant and Animal Domestication provide the Power to drive civilization
  • Plant and Animal Domestication provide the basis for mythology and culture
slide40
Why
  • Why did SW Asia experience domestication before anywhere else?
  • Why did SW Asia establish the basic founder package for food production that spread throughout the world?
  • Why did SW Asia provide the Major Five that powered history?
  • Why did Pre-historic Americans and Australians exterminate their big candidate mammals before domesticating them?
  • Why can’t we moderns domesticate anything major despite all or money, science and technology?
slide41
Are there pre-established limits upon the ecological reach of humans, within which we must sustainably operate?
ad