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Section Outline. Section 36-1. 36–1 The Skeletal System A. The Skeleton B. Structure of Bones C. Development of Bones D. Types of Joints 1. Immovable Joints 2. Slightly Movable Joints 3. Freely Movable Joints E. Structure of Joints F. Skeletal System Disorders.
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Section Outline Section 36-1 • 36–1 The Skeletal System • A. The Skeleton • B. Structure of Bones • C. Development of Bones • D. Types of Joints • 1. Immovable Joints • 2. Slightly Movable Joints • 3. Freely Movable Joints • E. Structure of Joints • F. Skeletal System Disorders
A. The Skeleton • The skeleton supports the body, protects internal organs, provides for movement, stores mineral reserves, and provides a site for blood cell formation • Bones provide a system of levers on which muscles act to produce movement • There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton • Divided into two parts – Axial Skeleton (central axis of body) and appendicular skeleton (appendages)
Skull Clavicle Sternum Scapula Humerus Ribs Radius Vertebral column Pelvis Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges The Skeletal System Section 36-1 Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton
B. Structure of Bones • Bones are a solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salts • Periosteum – tough layer of connective tissue surrounding the bone • Haversian canals – carry blood vessels and nerves • Bonemarrow – cavities within the bone that contain soft tissue. Also where cells are made
Spongy bone Haversian canal Compact bone Compact bone Periosteum Bone marrow Spongy bone Osteocyte Artery Periosteum Vein Figure 36-3 The Structure of Bone Section 36-1
hyaline cartilage elastic cartilage
D. Types of Joints • Joint – a place where one bone attaches to another bone • Depending on its type of movement a joint is classified as immovable, slightly movable, or freely movable • 1. Immovable Joints • a.k.a. – fixed joints – no movement • 2. Slightly Movable Joints • -small amount of restricted movement
Clavicle Humerus Ball-and-socket joint Radius Pivot joint Scapula Ulna Humerus Femur Patella Fibula Metacarpals Hinge joint Carpals Saddle joint Tibia Figure 36-4 Freely Movable Joints and Their Movements Section 36-1 Ball-and-Socket Joint Pivot Joint Hinge Joint Saddle Joint
Muscle Tendon Femur Patella Bursa Ligament Synovial fluid Cartilage Fat Fibula Tibia • E. Structure of Joints • Ligaments – 1 layer of tough connective tissue that holds bones together • Synovial fluid – 2nd layer allows surfaces of joints to slide smoothly
Section 36-1 F. Skeletal System Disorders Inflammation Osteoporosis