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Nervous System- Divisions. Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - nerves extending to extremities Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - regulates body’s automatic or involuntary functions. Nervous System: Cells. Neurons: Structure Cell Body

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nervous system divisions
Nervous System- Divisions
  • Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - nerves extending to extremities
    • Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - regulates body’s automatic or involuntary functions
nervous system cells
Nervous System: Cells
  • Neurons: Structure
    • Cell Body
    • Dendrites
    • Axon
      • myelin -
      • Schwann cells -
      • myelinated fibers -
      • nodes of ranvier -
nervous system cells3
Nervous System: Cells
  • Neurons - 3 Types
    • Sensory neurons
    • Motor neurons
    • Interneurons
  • Glia - connective tissue cells of the CNS
    • Astrocytes - star shape (attach to blood vessels)
    • Microglia - consume microbes
    • Oligodendroglia - produce myelin sheath
nervous system tissue disorders
Nervous System: Tissue Disorders
  • Multiple sclerosis: myelin disorder
  • Tumors: neuroma
  • Multiple neurofibromatosis: inherited fibrous neuromas
nervous system nerves
Nervous System: Nerves
  • Nerve - bundle of peripheral axons
    • Tract - bundle of central axons
    • White matter - myelinated axons
    • Gray matter - unmyelinated axons
  • Nerve coverings - fibrous connective tissue
    • Endoneurium- surrounds single fiber
    • Perineurium- surrounds group of fibers
    • Epineurium- surrounds entire nerve
nervous system reflex arcs
Nervous System: Reflex Arcs
  • Reflex Arc - Nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain.
  • Receptors - beginning of dendrites
  • Ganglion - nerve cell bodies in PNS
  • Synapse - space between axon and dendrite
  • Reflex - response to impulse over a reflex arc
  • See pg. 205
nervous system nerve impulses
Nervous System: Nerve Impulses
  • wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron’s plasma membrane
  • impulse created by an imbalance of sodium ions on the inside and outside of the plasma membrane
  • saltatory conduction - fast impulse on myelinated plasma membrane
nervous system synapse
Nervous System: Synapse
  • Synapse- impulse passed from one neuron to the next
  • Neurotransmitters - chemical compounds released from axon terminals into a synaptic cleft (pg. 208)
  • acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, catecholamines, endorphins, enkephalins
nervous system parkinson s disease
Nervous System: Parkinson’s Disease
  • chronic nervous disorder resulting from a deficiency of dopamine
central nervous system
Central Nervous System
  • Divisions of the Brain:
    • Brain Stem
      • Medulla Oblongata
      • Pons
      • Midbrain
    • Cerebellum
    • Diencephalon
      • Hypothalamus
      • Thalamus
    • Cerebrum
cns brain stem
CNS: Brain Stem
  • medulla oblongata - enlarged upper section of the spinal cord
  • pons - above medulla oblongata
  • midbrain- rests between the pons, thalamus, and cerebellum
  • all three contain well mixed white and gray matter
  • function: two-way conduction paths
cns diencephalon
CNS: Diencephalon
  • lies between the brain stem and cerebrum
  • Hypothalamus - consists mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, and gray matter
  • Functions: Center for controlling ANS, controls hormone secretion, and controls appetite, wakefulness, and pleasure
cns diencephalon cont
CNS: Diencephalon cont...
  • Thalamus: dumb-bell shaped mass in each cerebral hemisphere
  • Relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex
  • Produces the emotions of pleasantness and unpleasantness associated with sensations
cns cerebellum
CNS: Cerebellum
  • Lies below occipital lobe
  • Outer layer - gray matter
  • Inside - White matter
  • Functions - Produce smooth coordinated movements
  • Maintain equilibrium
  • Sustain normal postures
cns cerebrum
CNS: Cerebrum
  • Largest part of brain
  • Outer layer - gray matter (cerebral cortex)
  • Interior of brain - white matter (tracts)
  • two lobes
  • Functions - mental processes of all types (sensations, consciousness, memory, and voluntary control of movements)
peripheral nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Cranial Nerves (12 Pair)
  • Spinal nerves
  • Peripheral nerve disorders
    • Neuritis
    • Trigeminal neuralgia
    • Bell’s palsy
    • Shingles
autonomic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Regulates the body’s automatic or involuntary movements (main job is to restore homeostasis)
  • Sympathetic Vs. Parasympathetic
  • Autonomic Neurotransmitters
  • Disorders of ANS
    • Stress induced disease
    • Neuroblastoma