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LIPIDS . Digestion .. Absorption .. Transportation .. Metabolism. Dina Trabzuni. Lipids consist of two parts Glycerol Fatty Acids a. Saturated fatty acids b. Unsaturated fatty acids . Monounsaturated . Polyunsaturated. Figure 3 : Formation of TG. Table 1 : Saturated fatty acids .

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slide1

LIPIDS

Digestion .. Absorption ..

Transportation .. Metabolism

Dina Trabzuni

slide2

Lipids consist of two parts

  • Glycerol
  • Fatty Acids
  • a. Saturated fatty acids
  • b. Unsaturated fatty acids.Monounsaturated .Polyunsaturated

Figure 3 : Formation of TG

slide5

Lipids are classified as simple or complex

  • Simple lipid
  • a.Fatty acids
  • b. neutral fats (monoglyceride,
  • diglycerde, and triglyceride)
  • c. waxes
  • Complex lipids
  • a. Phospholipids
  • b. Glycolipids
  • c. Lipoproteins
  • 3. Derived lipids

Figure 1 : Triglyceride

Figure 2 : Phosphatidic acid

slide8

Function of Fat

. Energy

. Essential nutrient

. Flavor and Satisfaction

. Adipose Tissue

.Cell membrane Structure

Fat in Food

Fat in Body

slide9

Food Sources of Fat

. Meat Fat (bacon, sausage….)

. Dairy Fats and products (cream, butter, cheese..)

. Egg yolk

. Monounsaturated , polyunsaturated Fatty acid

.Vegetable oil (safflower, corn, soybean, cottonseed, olive oil)

Animal Fats

Plant Fat

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Characteristics Of Food Fat Sources

. Butter, margarin, salad oils and dressing,shirteninig fat meat

. Chees, cream portion of homogenised milk, egg yolk, nuts, seeds, olives…..

Visible Fat

Invisible Fat

slide11

Digestion of lipids

  • In mouth
  • mechanical digestion Lingual Lipase
  • In stomach
  • mechanical digestion
  • Gastric lipase
slide12

In small intestine

  • Bile acid, Pancreatic Lipase, Cholesterol esterase, Phospholipase

Pancreatic lipase

Triglycerides

Triglycerides

2 fatty acids + Mono glycerides

1 fatty acids + Diglycerides

Pancreatic lipase

Triglycerides

3 fatty acids + glycerol

slide13

Absorption of lipids

Figure 4 : Absorption of fat.

slide14

Transportation of lipids

Table 3Lipids are transported in the plasma as lipoproteins.

slide15

Lipids Metabolism

. Liver and Adipose tissue play a central role in lipid metabolism.

. Adipose tissue is the main store of triglyceride in the body.

. Lipid metabolism either lipolysis or lipogenesis.

. Fatty acids are both oxidized to acetyl CoA and synthesized from acetyl CoA.

slide16

Lipolysis

. Complete hydorlysis of triglyceride yeild gelycerol and 3 fatty acids.

. Fatty acids oxidiation take place in the mitochonderia.

. Fatty acids are activated before being catabolized (oxidized).

Fatty acid + ATP + CoA

Acyl CoA + AMP + PPi

acyl CoA

synthetase

slide17

Long chain fatty acids penetrate the inner -Mitochinderial membrane as carnitine derivatives.

Figure 5 : Role of carnitine in the transport of long chain fatty acids.

slide18

β - oxidation pathway of fatty acids

. Many tissues are capable of oxidizing fatty acids in the mitochondria by β - oxidation pathway.

. The chain is broken between the α (2) and β (3) carbon atoms.

Figure 6 : Overview of β - oxidation pathway of fatty acids

slide20

The products of oxidation of fatty acids

Oxidation of fatty acids produces a large quantity of ATP,

.example : Palmitic acid (C:16 )

7 cycles from 7 NADH + 7 FADH2

(7 x5 = 35 ATP)

7 cycles from 8 Acetyl CoA

(8 x 12 = 96 ATP)

2 ATP for the initial activation

of fatty acid

( 35 +96 – 2 = 129 molecule of ATP)

Figure 8 : acetyl CoA product

slide22

Ketone bodies

Ketogenesis occurs when there is a high rate of fatty acid oxidation in the Liver (figure 10).

Acetyl CoA

Acetyl CoA

CoA

Aceto acetyl CoA

CoA

Acetoacetate

β -hydroxy butyrate

Acetone

slide23

Lipogenesis

. The body is capable of synthesizing fatty acids in the cytoplast of the cell from starter ( acetyl CoA + malonyl CoA).

. Malonyl CoA is formed from Acetyl CoA

Figure 11 : Biosynthesis of Malonyl CoA

slide24

. Acetyl CoA transfer to the cytoplast across the mitochondrial membrane in the form of citrate

Figure 12 : Conversion the citrate to Oxaloacetate and Acetyl CoA.

. The enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis are arranged in a complex called the fatty acid synthase system.

slide26

Cholesterol

. Cholesterol is not an energy producing nutrient.

  • . It is an essential structural
  • component of membrane of the outer layer of plasma lipoprotien.
  • Bile acids and steriod hormones are formed from cholesterol.
  • . Cholesteryl ester is a storage form of cholesterol which is found in most tissues.

Figure 14 : Cholesterol

slide27

Acetyl CoA

CoA

Acetyl CoA

CoA

Inhibition

HMG-CoA

reductase

Cyclization

Acetyl CoA is the source of all carbon atoms in cholesterol

Acetoacetyl CoA

β -hydroxy- β- methylglutaryl CoA

Mevalonate

Squalene

Farmesyl pyrophosphate

slide28

References

Brene, R., Levy, M., Koeppen, B., Stanton, B., (2004) Physiology, Fifth edition. Mosby.

Fox, S., (2004) Human Physiology, Eighth edition. Mc Graw Hill.

Hunt, S., Groff, J., (1997) Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, West Puplishing Company.

Lehninger, A., Nelson, D., Cox, M.,(1993) Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd edtion. Worth Puplishers.

Murray, R., Granner, D., Mayes, P., Rodwell, V., (1996) Haper’s Biochemistry, 24th edition, Prentic-Hall International, Inc.

Seeley, R., Stephens, T., Tate, P., (1992) Anatomy and Physiology,Mosby Yearbook.