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DOE-2 Overview and Basic Concepts. Background. US public domain programs from 1970s Post Office program; NECAP (NASA energy-cost analysis program); NBSLD (National Bureau of Standards Load Determination) Cal-ERDA (California + U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration) program

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background
Background
  • US public domain programs from 1970s
    • Post Office program; NECAP (NASA energy-cost analysis program); NBSLD (National Bureau of Standards Load Determination)
    • Cal-ERDA (California + U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration) program
    • Department of Energy (DOE) funding
      • First generation DOE-1.4 program (1978)
      • Later DOE-2.0A, 2.1A, B, C, D, E come out
  • Program description
    • http://gundog.lbl.gov/dirsoft/d2whatis.html
background3
Background
  • Current versions
    • DOE-2.1E (official), DOE-2.2 & PowerDOE
    • Maintained by the Simulation Research Group of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
    • Funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
  • Several PC versions & interfaces, e.g.
    • ADM-DOE2, FTI-DOE, VisualDOE (at a cost)
    • eQUEST (freeware)
background4
Background
  • In the past, mainly used by researchers
    • DOE-2 is powerful but very complicated
    • Require much input time & detail
    • Need efforts to learn & to master
  • In recent years, also used by building designers & energy analysts
    • Consider as the reference program in USA
    • Becoming popular internationally (e.g. for developing building energy codes)
    • Often used for performance-based energy codes
background5
Background
  • Based on transfer function theory & weighting factor method; in FORTRAN language
  • Program structure
    • Building description language (BDL) processor
      • Error diagnosis & calculate response factors
    • Simulation subprograms
      • LOADS – building loads
      • SYSTEMS – secondary HVAC system
      • PLANT – primary HVAC system
      • ECONOMICS – economic analysis
main features
Main Features
  • Capabilities
    • Energy conservation studies
      • Building envelope design (materials, construction, etc.)
      • Internal loads (occupant, lighting, equipment)
      • HVAC systems & plant
    • Building design studies
      • Daylighting & ventilation design
      • Energy & environmental systems
        • Such as cogeneration, desiccant cooling & ice thermal storage
      • Economic & life cycle analysis
main features8
Main Features
  • Limitations
    • Cannot model electrical & lift systems
    • Certain constraints on some building systems
    • Inflexible FORTRAN structure
    • Sequential calculation method (L-S-P-E)
      • Not able to consider heat balance
simulation process
Input 1

Output

Input 2

Simulation Process
  • DOE-2 input file (BDL instructions)
    • Input files in ASCII text format
    • Commands, subcommands & keywords
    • Basic file structure:
      • LOADS section
      • SYSTEMS section
      • PLANT section
      • ECONOMICS section (optional)

DOE-2

Simulation

Engine

simulation process10
Simulation Process
  • Run periods
    • Normally whole year (8,760 hours)
    • May run on shorter period (say, one month)
    • May carry out simulation for multiple years (if the weather files are available)
  • Control of simulation process
    • Base case design
    • Design alternatives (done with interface program)
    • Parametric runs & analysis (may be tailored made)
simulation process11
Simulation Process
  • DOE-2 output reports
    • Standard reports
      • Verification reports + Summary reports
      • For loads, systems, plant & economics
    • Hourly reports
      • Very detailed; for checking by advanced users
  • Program-specific output
    • Summary graphs and tables
    • Customised reports
    • Errors & diagnostics
simulation process12
Simulation Process
  • DOE-2 output files & reports
    • Commonly read summary reports:
      • LS-A (Space Peak Loads Summary)
      • SS-A & SS-B (System Monthly Loads Summary)
      • PS-A (Plant Energy Utilization Sumary)
      • PS-B (Monthly Peak and Total Energy Use)
      • PS-E (Monthly Energy End Use Summary)
      • BEPS (Building Energy Performance Summary)
slide13
Design

Typical

Weather

Weather

Design Load

Calculations

Energy

Calculations

Peak Design

Loads

Equipment Sizes

Building Energy

and Plant Capacity

Consumption

input requirements
Input Requirements
  • Input data
    • Site data
      • Building type, location, geometry, construction
      • Weather data: design weather, weather files
    • Building data
      • Surface areas, windows, zoning, room shapes
      • Building materials, mass, finishes, shades
      • Operating schedules & profiles
      • Internal loads, design conditions
input requirements15
Input Requirements
  • Input data (cont’d)
    • Building systems
      • HVAC (air side) system type & performance
      • Lighting & electrical services
    • Building plant and equipment
      • Performance of refrigeration, boiler & other plants
    • Data for economic analysis
      • Electricity tariffs/rates, fuel prices
      • Equipment costs, interest rates
input requirements16
Input Requirements
  • Model zoning (thermal, not geometric)
    • Should consider thermal loads (e.g. interior-perimeter), occupancy, lighting type and schedule
    • For existing buildings, refer to actual zoning
    • Need to simplify the model
      • Combine zones with similar load and usage
      • Intermediate typical floors are modelled as one floor
      • Combine HVAC systems
      • Sometimes, use ONE zone to quickly calculate the load
input requirements18
Input Requirements
  • General rules for zoning
    • One exterior zone per major orientation (4-5 m deep)
    • One internal zone per use schedule
    • One plenum zone (if plenum returns) for each air handler
    • One zone each for special uses
    • Separate ground and top floor zones
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