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Appraisal of 3D Data Conversions and Visualization Software Packages. Peter Bajcsy, PhD - Research Scientist, NCSA - Adjunct Assistant Professor ECE & CS at UIUC - Senior Associate Director Center for Humanities, Social Sciences and Arts (CHASS), Illinois Informatics Institute (I3), UIUC.

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appraisal of 3d data conversions and visualization software packages

Appraisal of 3D Data Conversions and Visualization Software Packages

Peter Bajcsy, PhD

- Research Scientist, NCSA

- Adjunct Assistant Professor ECE & CS at UIUC

- Senior Associate Director Center for Humanities, Social Sciences and Arts (CHASS), Illinois Informatics Institute (I3), UIUC

acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
  • This research was partially supported by a National Archive and Records Administration (NARA) supplement to NSF PACI cooperative agreement CA #SCI-9619019.   
  • The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the National Archive and Records Administration, or the U.S. government.
  • Contributions by: Peter Bajcsy, Kenton McHenry, Rob Kooper, Michal Ondrejcek, William McFadden, Sang-Chul Lee, David Clutter and Alex Yahja

Imaginations unbound

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Problem Formulation
  • Approach
  • Prototype Solution -Polyglot
  • Conclusions
why appraisal of 3d digital data
Why Appraisal of 3D Digital Data?
  • Preservation of cultural heritage
    • Museums, Libraries
  • Preservation of engineering drawings
    • Companies: Boeing, John Deere, GM
    • Government agencies: NASA, DoD
  • Preservation of architectural designs
    • Construction and architecture firms
  • Preservation of simulation results
    • Companies: Caterpillar, Ford
    • Government agencies: EPA, FEMA, DoD
  • Preservation of medical data
    • Companies: GM
    • Government agencies: DoD

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how to share 3d data
How To Share 3D Data?
  • Many File Formats
    • Complex & Proprietary
    • Standards (adoption & implementation)
  • Packaging
    • One file
    • Many files
    • Embedded in a container(e.g., PDF, HDF)

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how to compare and relate 3d data
How to Compare and Relate 3D Data?
  • Example Data: Torpedo Weapon Retriever 841
    • 784 existing 2D image drawings and 73 3D CAD models
  • How to establish relationships among the 3D CAD models and 2D image drawings during a product lifecycle?

Hypothetical Distribution of 3D CAD models for TWR 841

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how to design scalable appraisal approaches
How to Design Scalable Appraisal Approaches?
  • Scalability of appraisals with increasing heterogeneity of information, dimensionality of data and volume of electronic records
    • How should appraisal process change as 3D data is added to file containers?
    • How should appraisal process change as 3D+time, 2D+spectrum, 3D+time+spectrum, nD, …
    • How should appraisal operations be designed to accommodate growing volume of electronic records?

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problem formulation
Problem Formulation

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basic archival appraisal questions
Basic Archival Appraisal Questions
  • Are the 3D formats well formed?
  • Can we identify a minimal set of information to preserve?
  • Is there an optimal format to convert to?
  • Can we quantify 3D noise introduced during conversions?
  • Can we quantify differences in renderings?
current focus on 3d data conversions
Current Focus on 3D Data Conversions

3D file format conversions are inevitable since

  • (a) various software packages support importing and exporting different file formats,
  • (b) many file formats are retired or deprecated over time,
  • (c) the cost of preserving the existing large number of file formats is too high.

There is a need to understand the impact of 3D data conversions and the quality of the used conversion and visualization software with respect to information preservation .

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a subset of conversion related problems
A Subset of Conversion Related Problems
  • Problem #1: Appraisal of conversion paths for a given pair of source and target file formats
  • Problem #2: Appraisal of conversion software
  • Problem #3: Decision support for a target file format selection 
  • Problem #4: Decision support for information preservation metrics

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approach
Approach

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methodology
Methodology
  • Design a graph model of the conversion space
  • Assign characteristics to nodes and edges of the graph
  • Find all paths that connect source and target nodes of the graph
  • Evaluate dissimilarity metrics and computational costs
  • Analyze and appraise accordingly
  • Optimally process for preservation

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graph nodes 3d file format survey
Graph Nodes: 3D File Format Survey

From www.turbosquid.com ~ 3D market place

dissimilarity metrics work in progress
Dissimilarity Metrics (Work in Progress)
  • 2D histograms, e.g., spin images,
  • 3D light fields, e.g., visual hull,
  • metadata, e.g., header information and material properties,
  • appearance, e.g., screen snapshots, …..
  • .
  • .
  • .

Spin Images [Johnson, PAMI ‘99]

- Construct 2D histograms for each vertex:

- a: distance to plane represented by vertex normal

- b: distance to vertex on this plane

-Cluster histograms for each model

-Compare using Euclidean distance

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observations conversion of x3d to step to x3d
Observations: Conversion of X3D to STEP to X3D

Software:

X3dToVrml97

X3D

WRL

Software:

A3D Reviewer

Software:

A3D Reviewer

Nothing!

Software:

Vrml97ToX3d

WRL

X3D

STEP

observations stp to x3d to stp
Observations: STP to X3D to STP

A3D Reviewer

STP

Vrml97ToX3d

WRL

X3dToVrml97

A3D Reviewer

STP

WRL

X3D

prototype system polyglot
Prototype System: Polyglot

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current components of polyglot
Current Components of Polyglot
  • Input/Output Graph
    • Around 140 file formats (graph nodes)
    • Seven open source software packages (Blender 2.46, CyberwarePlyTool (iplytool-071024), K3D 0.6.7, VTK 5.2.1, Wings 3D 0.99.02, NIST's Vrm97ToX3d v1.0, NIST's x3dv2)
    • One commercial package (Adobe 3D Reviewer)
  • Conversion Service
    • Scripted execution
  • Visualization Service

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input output graphs
Input/Output Graphs

Adobe 3D Reviewer

slide24

Input/Output Graphs

Several converters

conversion service
Conversion Service
  • Challenges with conversion software:
    • No application programming interfaces (API) for import and export functionality in software packages
    • Software packages are closed source
    • Software packages are user interface driven
  • Approach: The conversion is automated by using the Windows AutoHotKey scripting language
    • http://www.autohotkey.com/
  • Limitations: Only one conversion can be executed at the same time with one software package due to license issues

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polyglot as a web service upload convert download
Polyglot as a Web Service: Upload/Convert/Download

View after downloading

using a Desktop Tool

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polyglot as a web service find mapping
Polyglot as a Web Service: Find Mapping
  • Specify Source and Target File Format

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conclusions
Conclusions

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current status
Current Status
  • For us, Polyglot is a research prototype that serves as a foundation for addressing basic archival appraisal questions
    • Noise introduced by conversions
    • Quality control
    • Appraisal scalability
  • There is a value in our better understanding of computational and storage costs associated with preserving 3D data
  • Our current work also enables addressing the questions introduced at the beginning, for example, discovering relationships and 3D comparisons (work in progress)

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collaboration areas with pronom droid jhove teams
Collaboration Areas with PRONOM/DROID/JHOVE Teams
  • 2D Image (JPEG)
  • 3D Data (IGS)

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questions
Questions
  • Project URL: http://isda.ncsa.uiuc.edu/NARA/index.html and http://isda.ncsa.uiuc.edu/CompTradeoffs/
  • Publications – see our URL at http://isda.ncsa.uiuc.edu/publications
  • Peter Bajcsy; email: pbajcsy@ncsa.uiuc.edu