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Exploring place and time dynamics of vandalism in a Scottish Context PowerPoint Presentation
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Exploring place and time dynamics of vandalism in a Scottish Context

Exploring place and time dynamics of vandalism in a Scottish Context

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Exploring place and time dynamics of vandalism in a Scottish Context

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  1. Exploring place and time dynamics of vandalism in a Scottish Context

  2. Why am I interested in Vandalism and Crime and Place? • What questions do I plan to ask? • How will I explore it with Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA?

  3. Play Protest Pleasure / Thrill Vandalism Motivations to do it? Territorial

  4. VandalismTypology Stan Cohen (1973, 1984) institutionalised rule breaking(tolerated) conventional vandalism acquisitive writing off (too minor) tactical play walling in (e.g. school, prison) protection e.g. public schoolboys vindictive play malicious ritualism e.g. Halloween ideological vandalism

  5. Volume crime >20% Preventing Incivility Vandalism Motivations to Prevent It Social Control Signal Crime

  6. Routine Activities Theory – Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson 1979 Place Likely Offender Absence of Capable Guardian Crime Place Place Suitable Target Time

  7. Crime Pattern Theory– Paul Brantingham and Patricia Brantingham

  8. Crime and Place Routine Activities, Rational Choice, Crime Pattern Theory Cultural Criminology Social Disorganisation Tradition (Collective Efficacy) Situational Action Theory of Crime Causation (after Anthony Bottoms, 2007)

  9. Routine Activities Theory – Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson 1979 Place Likely Offender Absence of Capable Guardian Situational Action Theory Collective Efficacy Vandalism Place Place Suitable Target Time Temporal Constraint Theory SCP

  10. Research Questions • Vandalism appears to occur with more frequency at certain places and at certain times, but where, when and why those times and places, in particular? • Does vandalism always occur only where there is also other disorder? • Do local responses to vandalism affect reporting and recording of vandalism?

  11. What is Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA )

  12. Spreadsheet s and statistical softwaree.g. Excel / Open Office calc / SPSS • GIS e.g. ArcGIS / MapInfo • ESDA packages e.g. Geoda, CrimeStat III, GIS extensions / tools Tools for EDA and ESDA

  13. Why study Edinburgh – EDA Comparison - Excel Population of each Local Authority distributed betweenScottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2006 groupings (SIMD deciles) Data from 2004, Source www.sns.gov.uk accessed February 2009

  14. Relative Deprivation - ArcGIS

  15. Current Income ESDA with Brushing and Linking 1 - Geoda Health Employment Education SIMD Crime Domains not shown: Housing, Geographic Access Data for 2004, Source www.sns.gov.uk accessed February 2009

  16. ESDA with Brushing and Linking 2 - Geoda Housebreakingper dwelling Vandalism per hectare Worklessness Per working population Data from 2004, Source www.sns.gov.uk accessed February 2009

  17. ESDA - Standardisation 2 – Geoda Vandalism per population Vandalism per hectare Data from 2004, Source www.sns.gov.uk accessed February 2009

  18. ESDA - Standardisation 2 – Geoda Vandalism per population Vandalism per hectare For a given area A in Edinburgh – The Standardised rate = Observed rate of A / Expected rate of A Expected rate of A = area of A in hectares * by vandalism per hectare for Edinburgh Observed rate = actual number vandalisms in area A Standardised rate = 1 if the area experiences level of vandalism expected for that area

  19. Housebreaking Worklessness ESDA with Brushing and Linking 3 - Geoda Vandalism High value dwellings Data from 2004, Source www.sns.gov.uk accessed February 2009

  20. Other EDA and ESDA Methods - Graphs of Time by Hour Excel - KDE Mapping and 3D VisualisationCrime Stat III, ArcGIS and ArcScene - KDE Mapping and OverlayCrime Stat III, ArcGIS - Nearest Neighbour Hierarchical Clustering CrimeStat III, ArcGIS and Excel

  21. Geoda Geoda is free for academic or personal use, or if a US Government employee. All other uses require contacting the authors See:-http://geodacenter.asu.edu/geodasum CRIMESTAT CrimeStat is “intended for the use of law enforcement agencies, criminal justice researchers, and educators. It can be distributed freely for educational or research purposes”. See:- http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/CRIMESTAT/index.html Thank youEllie Batese.j.w.bates@sms.ed.ac.uk