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CHEMICAL BONDING. Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding Metallic Bonding. What is bonding ?. Joining of atoms to make compounds and molecules . Become more stable - lower potential energy - Fill valence shell (Octet Rule). Ionic Bonds. Covalent Bonds. Major Types of Bonding.

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chemical bonding

CHEMICAL BONDING

Ionic Bonding

Covalent Bonding

Metallic Bonding

what is bonding
What is bonding?

Joining of atoms to make compounds

and molecules.

  • Become more stable

- lower potential energy

- Fill valence shell (Octet Rule)

Ionic Bonds

Covalent Bonds

major types of bonding
Major Types of Bonding

METALLIC BONDING

IONIC BONDING

COVALENT BONDING

strength of bonds
Strength of Bonds

1. Ionic – Strongest form of bond with the highest difference in electronegativity

    • The greater the difference in electronegativity, the more ionic character the bond has
    • Difference in electronegativity 1.7 and above

2. Covalent – second strongest form of bond

  • The lower the difference in electronegativity, the more covalent character the bond has
  • Difference in electronegativity, 0-1.7

3. Metallic – lowest strength

  • Not based on electronegativity – simply held together by the electrostatic forces between delocalized electrons
ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding
  • Ionic bonding involves the electrostatic force of attraction of a cation (+) and an anion (-).
  • Charges and amounts of atoms balance to become a neutral compound.
forms crystals
Forms Crystals
  • Regular geometric patterns of the formula unit. (lattice structure)
  • Formula unit is simplest whole number unit.
ionic bonding characteristics
Ionic Bonding Characteristics
  • Formed between METALS AND NONMETALS
  • Solid at room temperature
  • Form Crystal lattice structures
  • Dissolve in water
  • Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved
  • High Melting points
forms of chemical bonds
Forms of Chemical Bonds
  • There are 2 extreme forms of connecting or bonding atoms:
  • Ionic: completetransfer of electrons
  • Covalent: electrons equally shared

Most bonds are somewhere in between.

electronegativity
Electronegativity

Attraction of the bonded electrons to one of the atoms.

A

B

But… which atom?

slide11

The one with the highest electronegativity!

Electronegativity Trend

Same as electron affinity and ionization energy.

slide12

Bond Type = Difference in electronegativities

Greater than 1.7 = Ionic Bond

1.7 - .3= Polar Covalent Bond

.3 – 0= Non Polar Covalent Bond

SUBTRACT!

practice
Practice
  • What type of bond exists between sodium and oxygen?

IONIC BOND

3.5 – 0.9 = 2.6

Greater than 1.7 = Ionic

1.7 - .3 = Polar Covalent

.3 and below = NonPolar Covalent

slide14

Bond type is on sliding scale of ionic & covalent bond extremes known as % ionic character.

Pure Covalent Bond

1.7 (50%)

Electroneg. Difference

Ionic Bond

electronegativity1
Electronegativity
  • Due to it being a sliding scale the greater the electronegativity difference, the more ionic the bond.
  • Label the bond types formed below
    • Na – I
    • N – O
    • Al - Cl
slide16

ELECTRON DOTS & IONS

For atoms to enter into chemical reactions and become more stable, electrons are lost or gained and IONS are formed.

Atoms will gain or lose electrons from the principal quantum level in order to achieve a noble gas configuration.

With the exception of helium, 8 electrons in the outer energy level make an element stable and unreactive. This is the OCTET RULE.

electron dot structures
Electron Dot Structures
  • A visual way to show the valence electrons
  • Follow the orbital filling rules.
  • Example: Sulfur

S electrons

Electron Configuration:

1s22s22p63s23p4

S

pz electrons

px electrons

py electrons

you try
You Try!

Write structures for H, Mg, N, Cl, Ne

H

N

Mg

Cl

Ne

slide19
IONS

Atoms that have gained or lost electrons and are no longer neutral.

Atoms gain or lose electrons to become more stable (lower potential energy). They become like a noble gas configuration.

Follows Octet Rule!

slide20

IONS

Electron Configuration:

1s22s22p63s1

Na

Examples: Sodium

Choice…

Lose 1 electron and drop to full 2nd energy level or….

Gain 7 electrons to get a full 3rd energy level?

But:

(+)11 protons

(-) 10 electrons

(+) 1

+1

Na

New electron configuration:

1s22s22p6 (Like Neon)

slide21

IONS

Electron Configuration:

1s22s22p63s23p4

S

Examples: Sulfur

Choice…

Lose 6 electrons and drop to full 2nd energy level or….

Gain 2 electrons to get a full 3rd energy level?

But:

(+)16 protons

(-) 18 electrons

(-) 2

-2

S

New electron configuration:

1s22s22p63s23p6(Like Argon)

oxidation
OXIDATION
  • Process of an element becoming more POSITIVE.
  • Could occur from neutral to +1 or from +1 to +2.
  • How does element oxidize?
    • Loss of electrons!

Example: Na0Na1++ 1e-

The ionic charge of Na (0 or 1+) can also be called its oxidation number.

reduction
REDUCTION
  • Process of an element becoming more NEGATIVE.
  • Could occur from neutral to -1 or from

-1 to -2.

  • How does element reduce?
    • Gain of electrons!

Example: O0 + 2e-O2-

What’s the oxidation number for O?

practice1
Practice
  • Write the oxidation or reduction for the following and label as oxidation or reduction:
    • Aluminum
    • Iodine
    • Nitrogen
    • Beryllium
parts of an equation
Parts of an Equation

REACTANTSOXIDATION NUMBER

PRODUCTSCOEFFICIENT

SUBSCRIPT

Mg2+ + 2 Br  MgBr2

*Cation is always written first!

*Atoms combine in simplest whole number ratios to make their charges zero.

you try1
You Try!

Write the Lewis dot equation showing the ionic bonding between oxygenandsodium.

2Na+ + Br  Na2O

practice2
PRACTICE

Write the oxidation number (ionic symbols) of the following elements: Ba, I, Br, Be

Write oxidation / reduction equations for aluminum and oxygen forming ions.

Write the Lewis dot equation combining aluminum and oxygen.

slide29

Naming Ionic Compounds

Terms

Monatomic ion Na1+or O2-

Polyatomic ion NO31-NH4+

oxyanion– polyatomic w/ Oxygen

Binary Ionic Compound Na2O

Ternary Ionic Compound NaNO3

IUPAC:

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

naming binary compounds 2 different elements only
Naming Binary Compounds (2 different elements only)
  • Ex. FeCl3 – Iron (III) Chloride

1. Name the cation (positive ion) in the formula with no change. For the above example: Iron.

2. Determine if the cation is a transition metal or underneath the stair-step line (except cadmium, silver, aluminum and zinc). If it isn’t skip to step 5. For the above example: Iron IS a transition metal so go on to step 3.

3. Use the charge of the anion to determine the charge of the Iron since it is a transition metal. Since chlorine is a 1- charge and there are 3 of them, Iron has to be a 3+ in this case to balance it out.

4. Place the charge, in parenthesis, after the name of the cation.

5. Name the anion with an –ide ending.

ternary compounds containing a polyatomic ion
Ternary compounds (Containing a polyatomic ion)
  • Ex. Cr3(PO4)2 – Chromium (II) Phosphate

1. Name the cation in the formula with no change. For the above example: Chromium.

2. Determine if the cation is a transition metal or underneath the stair-step line (except cadmium, silver, aluminum and zinc). If it isn’t skip to step 5, if it is go to step 3. For the above example: Chromium IS a transition metal.

3. Use the charge of the polyatomic anion to determine the charge of the Chromium since it is a transition metal. Since phosphate is a 3- charge and there are 2 of them, Chromium has to be a 2+ in this case to balance it out.

4. Place the charge, in parenthesis, after the name of the cation.

5. Name the polyatomic ion with not change.

examples
Examples
  • Write the name of the following compounds:
  • Na2O ___________________________
  • Cu3N2 ___________________________
  • PbO ___________________________
  • SnO2 ___________________________
  • Na2CO3 ___________________________
  • Mg(ClO2)2 ___________________________
practice3
Practice
  • Naming compounds on whiteboards
binary formulas
Binary Formulas
  • Example – Magnesium Chloride

1. Write down the symbol and charge of each ion, always placing the positive one first.

Mg 2+Cl1-

2. Figure out how many of each ion you need to balance their charges and make them equal zero when put together as a compound. (in this case 1 magnesium, 2 chlorines)

3. Use subscripts to indicate how many of each ion you have in the formula.

MgCl2

ternary formulas
Ternary Formulas
  • Example – Calcium Phospate

1. Write down the symbol and charge of each ion, always placing the positive one first.

Ca2+ PO43-

2. Figure out how many of each ion you need to balance their charges and make them equal zero when put together as a compound (in this case 3 calciums and 2 phosphates)

3. Use subscripts to indicate how many of each ion you have in the formula, placing the polyatomic ion (PO4) in parenthesis (when more than one) with the subscript outside of the parenthesis.

Ca3(PO4)2

examples1
Examples
  • Write the formula for the following compounds:

sodium oxide _______________

tin (IV) chloride ________________

nickel (II) phosphide _____________

ammonium hydroxide _____________

magnesium acetate________________