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We are Learning. How to answer different types of questions about sentence structure. What do we mean by sentence structure?. How sentences are constructed by the author. How words are arranged in the sentence. Features you may be asked about. Inversion. Types of punctuation used.

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We are learning

We are Learning...

How to answer different types of questions about sentence structure.



We are learning


Features you may be asked about
Features you may be asked about...

  • Inversion.

  • Types of punctuation used.

  • Short sentences.

  • Long sentences.

  • Rhetorical questions.

  • Repetition.

  • Lists

  • Minor sentences.


Important
Important!

  • In sentence structure questions you will have to do two things:

  • 1) Identify what feature has been used.

  • 2) Explain the purpose and effect of the feature.


1 inversion anastrophe
1. Inversion/ Anastrophe

  • In English, most sentences are structured as follows:

    The car went faster and faster along the road.

    The mountains were covered in a blanket of snow.

    The man was reckless.


We are learning

Inversion/ Anastrophe occurs when an author reverses this word order for artistic purposes.For example,Faster and faster along the road went the car.Covered in a blanket of snow were the mountains.Reckless was the man.


Why do authors use inversion
Why do authors use inversion? word order for artistic purposes.

  • To alter the emphasis of words in a sentence.

  • To draw attention to a particular word or phrase.

    (usually at beginning or end of sentence).


How to answer
How to answer? word order for artistic purposes.

1. Mention that the author has used inversion/ anastrophe.

2. Also mention what he is emphasising. What is the effect of the inversion?


2 punctuation
2. Punctuation word order for artistic purposes.

  • You are likely to be asked about the following types of punctuation:

    Exclamation marks.

    Colons.

    Parenthesis.

    Italics.

    Inverted Commas.


Exclamation marks
Exclamation marks ! word order for artistic purposes.

  • Used to convey:

    1.surprise/shock/astonishment.

    2.that someone is speaking loudly.

    3.strong emotion.

    4.that someone is making a command.


How to answer1
How to answer: word order for artistic purposes.

  • 1. Identify the exclamation mark.

  • 2. Explain the effect of the exclamation mark in relation to the passage.


Colon
Colon : word order for artistic purposes.

  • The information given after a colon will be an elaboration or explanation of the information that comes before the colon.

    David has three sisters: Fiona, Heather and Iona.

    Africa is facing a terrifying problem: perpetual droughtand famine.


Colon how to answer
Colon: how to answer word order for artistic purposes.

  • 1. Identify the colon.

  • 2. You must explain how the information after the colon expands upon or elaborates on the information before the colon. Use your own words.


Parenthesis
Parenthesis word order for artistic purposes.

To add extra information in the middle of a sentence that is not vital but adds to our knowledge and understanding.

Can be created using dashes, commas or brackets.


We are learning

My brother- who had recently returned from holiday- waited for me outside the cinema. My brother, who had recently returned from holiday, waited for me outside the cinema. My brother (who had recently returned from holiday) waited for me outside the cinema.


Parenthesis how to answer
Parenthesis: how to answer for me outside the cinema.

1. Mention that the author has used parenthesis.

2. Also summarise/explain the information inside the parenthesis. Use your own words!!


Single dash
Single Dash for me outside the cinema.-

  • Used to add extra information at the end of a sentence.


We are learning


Italics
Italics for me outside the cinema.

  • When words are written using italics, those words are meant to be emphasised/given greater emphasis.


We are learning


Inverted commas
Inverted Commas word in italics.

  • To show that someone is speaking (dialogue).

  • To suggest that something is not genuine, that something is only “so-called”.


3 short sentences
3. Short Sentences word in italics.

Why are they used?

  • To speed-up the writing. To create a sense of urgency.

  • To emphasise a point.

  • To give impact to a statement.

  • Series of short sentences build up to a climax.


How to answer2
How to answer... word in italics.

1.

Mention that the author has used short sentences.

2.

Also mention what effect his use of short sentences has. What is the purpose of them?


4 long sentences
4. Long sentences. word in italics.

  • Long sentences can sometimes add to the effectiveness and impact of a passage of writing.


We are learning


5 rhetorical questions
5. Rhetorical Questions word in italics.

  • Involves the reader in the writing.

  • Shows that the author is addressing the audience directly.

  • Aim to stir up emotions and feelings in the reader

  • Tries to get the audience to think about what is being said.

  • To make a point or argument.


We are learning


6 repetition
6. Repetition word in italics.

  • Sometimes an author repeats a particular word or phrase in a sentence or paragraph.

  • Why?

    To emphasise a particular idea or point.


We are learning


7 listing
7. Listing or phrase is being repeated.

  • Where an author uses a sentence to list items which are somehow related.

  • A list is usually created using commas.

    Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Saturn are all planets in our Solar System.


Purpose
Purpose or phrase is being repeated.

  • To emphasise the amount or number of something.

  • To emphasise the variety of something.


How to answer3
How to answer: or phrase is being repeated.

  • 1. Mention that the author has used a list.

  • 2. Explain the effect of the list, in relation to the passage.


8 minor sentences
8. Minor Sentences or phrase is being repeated.

  • A minor sentence is a sentence which does not contain a verb.

  • They are usually very short.

    “Where are you going after work?”

    “The cinema”.


Purpose1
Purpose or phrase is being repeated.

  • To create emphasis.

  • To give impact to a sentence.

  • To create suspense.

  • To create urgency.

  • To create informality.


How to answer4
How to answer: or phrase is being repeated.

  • 1. State that minor sentence is being used, and quote the sentence.

  • 2. Explain the effect of the minor sentence in relation to the passage.


Questions
Questions or phrase is being repeated.


1 explain how the length of this sentence adds to its effectiveness 2
1. Explain how the length of this sentence adds to its effectiveness (2).

For hours and hours we plodded through the streets, mile after mile, our feet aching and our heads pounding with every weary step we took, until at last, after what seemed like an eternity and with our strength all but exhausted, we reached the hotel.


We are learning

The author uses a long sentence. effectiveness (2).

The long sentence contains a lot of pauses which emphasises the length and boredom of the journey to the hotel.


2 comment on the effectiveness of the final sentence 2
2. Comment on the effectiveness of the final sentence (2) effectiveness (2).

  • When I got home that night it was already after eight, so I was pretty tired. All I wanted to do was have a bath and go to bed, but my as soon as I entered the house I sensed something was wrong and knew that I could forget my plans for an early night. There was a pile of CDs lying on the floor in the hall and doors that were normally closed during the day were wide open. Walking into the living room and switching on the light only confirmed what I already knew. I’d been burgled.


We are learning

  • The author has used a short sentence. effectiveness (2).

  • The abruptness/bluntness of the final sentence adds to the shock of what the speaker sees when he switches on the light to find that he has been burgled.


3 name the 3 different forms of punctuation used in the passage and comment on their effect
3. Name the 3 different forms of punctuation used in the passage and comment on their effect.

Jamie Millar walked in – the new boy in the year – and sat next to Jason Black. He was really fit. This was a disaster – Jason was the biggest geek in the whole school. He looked a sight: his orange curly hair; his big thick glasses; his snotty, crusty nose. They were never going to get on.

“Miss, should I loan Jamie a –”

“I’ve got one.” Jamie glared at Jason as he pulled a pen out of his denim jacket pocket.


We are learning

  • Parenthesis with dashes used to add extra information about the boy Jamie Millar, informing the reader that he has only just joined the school.

  • Single dash used to inform the reader that this pairing would not work because Jason was not popular in the school. He was a completely opposite character compared to Jamie.

  • Colon used to introduce a list of all the awful appearance factors relating to Jason.