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Electrons and the Periodic Table. Mrs. Freeman. History. HOW WAS MENDELEEV’S PERIODIC TABLE ARRANGED? By their chemical properties  HOW IS THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE ARRANGED? By increasing number of protons and atomic mass. WHY DIDN’T MENDELEEV ARRANGE HIS TABLE THIS WAY?

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history
History
  • HOW WAS MENDELEEV’S PERIODIC TABLE ARRANGED?
    • By their chemical properties
  •  HOW IS THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE ARRANGED?
    • By increasing number of protons and atomic mass.
  • WHY DIDN’T MENDELEEV ARRANGE HIS TABLE THIS WAY?
    • Because at the time the number of protons was not known.
periods are a horizontal row of elements
PERIODS: are a horizontal row of elements.
  • HOW MANY: 7
  • VARIATION ACROSS A PERIOD: Changes from metals to metalloids to nonmetals
groups aka families the individual columns of elements
GROUPS AKA FAMILIES: the individual columns of elements.
  • HOW MANY?
    • 18
  • SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ELEMENTS IN THE SAME GROUP?
    • They have the same number of valence electrons
slide6
REACTIVITY PATTERN WITHIN A GROUP: increasing reactivity, decreasing melting and boiling point and density generally increases,
slide8

THE MOST REACTIVE METALS:

    • Francium, Cesium, and Rubidium (in order from most reactive to least reactive)
  • THE MOST REACTIVE NONMETALS:
    • Fluorine, Chlorine, and Bromine (in order from most reactive to least reactive)
excited electron
Excited electron-
  • an electron in an energy level higher than its ground state (it has absorbed energy)
ground state
Ground state-
  • all the electrons have the lowest possible energy.
energy level
Energy Level-
  • The possible energies that electrons in an atom can have.
sub level
Sub-level
  • Electron orbital designated s, p, d or f.
  • These sublevels or orbitals have characteristic shapes which can be used to explain and predict the chemical bonds that atoms can form.
orbital
Orbital-
  • the region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found.
energy level energy shell
Energy level/energy shell-
  • the possible energies that electrons in an atom can have.
three ways to show arrangements of electrons
Three ways to show arrangements of electrons
  • Orbital Configuration Notation
  • Electron Configuration Notation
  • Electron Dot Notation
electron configuration
Electron configuration-
  • specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.
valence shell
Valence shell-
  • the outside energy shell
valence electrons
Valence electrons-
  • an electron that is in the highest energy level of an atom.
orbital configuration notation
Orbital Configuration Notation
  • each electron is assigned a space with an up spin or a down spin.
  • All up spins must be placed first.
  • Then place all down spins until all electrons are used.
electron configuration notation
Electron configuration notation:
  • is just the letters and numbers from the orbital configuration.
  • Example: Ar= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
electron dot notation
Electron dot notation:
  • the valence electrons represented by dots around the element symbol.
  • -fill in using the house memory trick
hund s rule
Hund’s Rule
  • every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
aufbau principle
Aufbau Principle:
  • is used to determine the electron configuration of an atom, molecule or ion. The principle postulates a hypothetical process in which an atom is "built up" by progressively adding electrons.
pauli s exclusion principal
Pauli’s Exclusion Principal
  • “no two electrons in the same atom can be in the same quantum state.” [1] This means that no two electrons can have the same set of quantum states of: 1) energy, 2) angular momentum magnitude, 3) angular momentum orientation, and 4) orientation of intrinsic spin.
assessment
Assessment
  • LIST THE PERIOD TO WHICH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BELONGS:
    • STRONTIUM:
      • 5
    • IRON:
      • 4
    • RADON:
      • 6
    • ANTIMONY:
      • 5
  • HOW MANY ELEMENTS ARE IN PERIOD 4?
    • 18
  • HOW MANY ELEMENTS ARE IN PERIOD 6?
    • 32
assessment1
Assessment:
  • NAME THE ELEMENT IN GROUP 3 PERIOD 4
    • Scandium.
  • HOW MANY VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE IN AN ATOM OF FLUORINE?
    • 7
  • TO WHAT GROUP DOES CARBON BELONG
    • 14