Recent Trends in Gonorrhea in the United States - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Recent Trends in Gonorrhea in the United States

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  1. Recent Trends in Gonorrhea in the United States Lori M. Newman, MD Division of STD Prevention CDC Jacksonville, FL May 9, 2006

  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Sequelae of untreated infection include • Pelvic inflammatory disease • Infertility • Chronic pelvic pain • Increases risk of HIV transmission and acquisition • Gonorrhea is second most common reported notifiable disease

  3. Rate (per 100,000 population) 500 Gonorrhea 2010 Target 400 300 200 100 0 1970 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 2000 03 Gonorrhea rates, U.S., 1970-2005* *Preliminary 2005 data

  4. Rate (per 100,000 population) 600 Male Female 2010 Target 480 360 240 120 0 1981 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 2001 03 05 Gonorrhea rates by sex, 1981-2005* *Preliminary 2005 data

  5. Gonorrhea rates by age and sex, 2005* *Preliminary 2005 data

  6. Proportion of reported gonorrhea cases from STD clinics by sex,1984-2005* % from STD clinics Males Females *Preliminary 2005 data

  7. Rate (per 100,000 population) 2,500 White Black Hispanic 2,000 Asian/Pacific Islander Am Indian/AK Native 2010 Target 1,500 1,000 500 0 1981 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 2001 03 05 Gonorrhea rates by race/ethnicity, 1981-2005* *Preliminary 2005 data

  8. Gonorrhea rates by state, United States and outlying territories, 2004

  9. Gonorrhea rates by county: United States, 2004

  10. Rate (per 100,000 population) 600 West Midwest Northeast 480 South 2010 Target 360 240 120 0 1981 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 2001 03 05 Gonorrhea rates by region, 1981-2005* *Preliminary 2005 data

  11. Rate (per 100,000 population) Female gonorrhea rates for 15-19 year olds by region and race/ethnicity, 2005* *Preliminary 2005 data

  12. Male gonorrhea rates for 20-24 year olds by region and race/ethnicity, 2005* Rate (per 100,000 population) *Preliminary 2005 data

  13. A closer look at increases in gonorrhea in the West……..

  14. How to define the area of interest? States with increases in number of reported gonorrhea cases of >= 25% from 2000 to 2005 AND States with at least 500 cases in 2005

  15. States with >25% increase in reported gonorrhea cases from 2000 to 2005* and > 500 cases in 2005* *Preliminary 2005 data, as of Jan 2006

  16. Gonorrhea rates by sex, 7 western states, 2000-2005* +48% +58% *Preliminary 2005 data for AK, CA, HI, NV, OR, UT, WA

  17. Gonorrhea rates by age, 7 western states, 2000-2005* +58% +47% +71% +39% +49% +69% *Preliminary 2005 data for AK, CA, HI, NV, OR, UT, WA

  18. Gonorrhea rates by race/ethnicity, 7 western states, 2000-2005* +18% +61% +89% +80% +45% *Preliminary 2005 data for AK, CA, HI, NV, OR, UT, WA

  19. Have providers in the West adopted more sensitive, less specific, gonorrhea test technology than other states?AND/OR Are providers in the West screening more than in other states?

  20. Comparison states with greatest number of gonorrhea cases in 2005* *Preliminary 2005 data, as of Jan 2006

  21. Proportion of gonorrhea tested by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), and gonorrhea test volume, American Public Health Laboratory Survey, 2000 and 2004(N=30 labs) *West: AK, CA, NI, NV, OR, UT, WA **Comparison: FL, GA, IL, NY, NC, OH, TX Source: APHL laboratory survey, unpublished data, CDC, 2001 & 2004. Methods published in: Webster Dicker L et al. Laboratory Tests Used in U.S. Public Health Laboratories for STDs, 2000. STD 2004; 31:259-264.

  22. Hypotheses • Artifactual increases • Use of more sensitive and less specific test technology • Gonorrhea screening • Increased dual gonorrhea/chlamydia testing • Outreach and screening efforts

  23. Hypotheses, cont. • Real increases due to • Increased risk behavior • Reduced disease control efforts • Increases in resistant gonorrhea • Predominance of a more transmissible or more virulent gonococcal strain

  24. Other analyses • Local in-depth analyses of case report data • Enhanced gonorrhea surveillance • Evaluation of laboratory test volume and positivity • Case control study • Review of other data sources (DIS interviews, STD clinics, HMOs)

  25. Summary • National rate remains stable, but still far from HP 2010 goal of 19 per 100,000 • Concerning racial disparities for gonorrhea • High burden of disease among black adolescents and young adults in all regions • Large increases in West, unclear cause, further investigation is underway

  26. Current activities • Working with project areas to investigate AND respond to increases in the West • STD Surveillance Network (SSuN) • 6 collaborating sites • Enhanced gonorrhea surveillance • STD clinics • Sample of cases in neighboring counties • Expanded behavioral, clinical, and lab data • NEDSS and STD Program Area Module • Translation of data into action

  27. Acknowledgements • Statistics and Data Management Branch, Division of STD Prevention, CDC • Rob Nelson • Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Division of STD Prevention, CDC • Katrina Park • Hillard Weinstock • The many participants in the “GC in the West” working group

  28. Contact information Lori Newman, MD Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch Division of STD Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA (404) 639-6183 len4@cdc.gov For more information: http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/ The findings and conclusions in this presentation have not been formally disseminated by the CDC and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy.