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Cold War. S.U.A.G.M. Hist 273 United States History Workshop Five. Group 4 Students: Marlenys Cañete Gisselle Pérez Alvaro Rodriguez Roilan Montero. Prof. Felix Godinez. Cold War.

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slide1

Cold War

S.U.A.G.M.

Hist 273 United States History

Workshop Five

Group 4

Students:

Marlenys Cañete

Gisselle Pérez

Alvaro Rodriguez

Roilan Montero

Prof. Felix Godinez

slide2

Cold War

The Cold War began after World War Two. The main enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold war got its name because both sides were afraid of fighting each other directly. In such a "hot war," nuclear weapons might destroy everything. So, instead, they fought each other indirectly. They played havoc with conflicts in different parts of the world. They also used words as weapons. They threatened and denounced each other. Or they tried to make each other look foolish.

slide3

Cold War

Over the years, leaders on both sides changed. Yet the Cold War continued. It was the major force in world politics for most of the second half of the twentieth century. Historians disagree about how long the Cold War lasted. A few believe it ended when the United States and the Soviet Union improved relations during the nineteen-sixties and early nineteen-seventies. Others believe it ended when the Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989, or when the Soviet Union collapsed in late 1991.

slide4

Cold War

The United States and the Soviet Union were the only two superpowers following the Second World War. The fact that, by the 1950s, each possessed nuclear weapons and the means of delivering such weapons on their enemies, added a dangerous aspect to the Cold War. The Cold War world was separated into three groups. The United States led the West. This group included countries with democratic political systems. The Soviet Union led the East. This group included countries with communist political systems. The non-aligned group included countries that did not want to be tied to either the West or the East.

slide5

Cold War

The United States and the Soviet Union were the only two superpowers following the Second World War. The fact that, by the 1950s, each possessed nuclear weapons and the means of delivering such weapons on their enemies, added a dangerous aspect to the Cold War. The Cold War world was separated into three groups. The United States led the West. This group included countries with democratic political systems. The Soviet Union led the East. This group included countries with communist political systems. The non-aligned group included countries that did not want to be tied to either the West or the East.

slide6

Cold War

Timeline

a tour through sixty years of history

40’s

50’s

60’s

70’s

80’s

90’s

slide7

Cold War

Timeline

  • 40’s
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt - President 1933 – 1945
  • Atomic Bomb Development
  • Joseph Stalin - Russian revolutionary, head of the USSR (1924-1953).
  • Potsdam Agreement (1945)
  • Harry S. Truman. President 1945 - 1953
  • The End of World War II
  • Separation of Berlin
  • The Greek Civil War
  • First Indochina War (1946-1950)
  • The U.S. Constabulary (1946-1952)
  • The Central Intelligence Agency / CIA (1947)
  • The Marshall Plan (April 3 1948)
  • The Czechoslovakia Coup (February 1948)
  • Berlin Blockade (June 24, 1948 - May 12.1949)
  • Berlin Airlift (June 26, 1948 - May 12, 1949)
  • Soviet Atomic Bomb Test (August 29, 1949)
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)
  • H-bomb development (1949)
slide8

Cold War

Timeline

  • 50’s
  • Women Defend the Nation - Federal Civil Defense Act (1950)
  • The Rosenberg Trial (1950 - 1953)
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy and the Witch Hunt (1950 - 1954)
  • Korean War (June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953)
  • GeorgyMalenkov (1902 - 1988) - Premier (1953)
  • Nikita Khrushchev (1894 -1971) Premier (1953 - 1964)
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890 - 1969) - President (1953 - 1961)
  • The first Indochina War / Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam (March – May 1954)
  • U.S. Involvement in Guatemala (June 1954)
  • The early U-2 overflights of the Soviet Union (1955 - 1960)
  • Vietnam Conflict (1955 - 1975)
  • The Warsaw Pact (May 1955)
  • Hungarian Revolution (October 23 - November 4, 1956)
  • Sputnik (October 4, 1957)
  • Berlin Crisis (1958 - 1962)
  • Fidel Castro (August 13, 1926 - , President, Cuba 1959 - 2007)
slide9

Cold War

Timeline

  • 60’s
  • U2 Incident (May 1, 1960)
  • Peace Corps (1960)
  • John F. Kennedy Assassination (1917 - 1963) - President (1961 - 1963)
  • Berlin Wall Timeline (August 13, 1961 - November 9, 1989)
  • Space Race (April 12, 1961 - July 20, 1969)
  • Bay of Pigs (April 17, 1961)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (October 16 - October 28, 1962)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson (1908 - 1973) - President (1963 – 1969
  • Leonid Brezhnev (1906 - 1982) - Premier (1964 - 1982)
  • Summer of Love and Woodstock (1967)
  • Six Day War (June 5 - 11, 1967)
  • Czechoslovakia Uprising (August 20, 1968)
  • Willy Brandt (1913 - 1992) - Chancellor of Germany (1969 - 1974)
slide10

Cold War

Timeline

  • 70’s
  • SALT I & SALT II (May 1972 - June 1979)
  • Richard M. Nixon (1913 - 1994, President, 1968 - 1974)
  • Coup d’etat in Chile (1973)
  • Gerald Ford (1913 - 2006, President 1974 - 1976)
  • The Fall of Saigon (April 30, 1975)
  • Jimmy Carter (1924, President 1976 - 1980)
  • Somalia, Ethiopia, and The Ogaden War (1977)
  • Afghan War (1978- 1992)
  • Neutron Bomb (1979)
  • Iran Hostage Crisis (1979 – 1981)

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

slide11

Cold War

Timeline

  • 80’s
  • Ronald Reagan (1911 - 2004), President (1981 - 1989)
  • Moscow Olympic Games (1980)
  • Yuri Andropov (1914 - 1984), General Secretary (1982- 1983)
  • Beirut (1982 - 1984)
  • Grenada (October, 1983)
  • The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): Star Wars (1983)
  • Iran / Contra (1983 - 1988)
  • Chernenko (1911 - 1985), General Secretary (1984 - 1985)
  • Mikhail Gorbachev (1931), General Secretary (1985 - 1991)
  • George Bush (1924), President (1988 - 1992)
  • Ceausescu & Romania (1989)
  • Tiananmen Square (April - June, 1989)
  • Fall of The Berlin Wall (November 9, 1989)
slide12

Cold War

Timeline

  • 90’s
  • Nelson Mandela & South Africa (1990s)
  • Desert Storm / Desert Shield (August 2, 1990 - March 3, 1991)
  • Reunification of Germany (October 3, 1990)
  • Boris Yeltsin (1931 - 2007, President of Russia 1991 - 1999)
  • Fall of the Soviet Union (December 1991)
  • William Jefferson Clinton (1946, President 1992 - 2000)
slide14

Cold War

Map of Warsaw Pact Countries

slide15

Cold War

The Berlin Wallwas a concrete barrier built by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) that completely enclosed the city of West Berlin, separating it from East Germany, including East Berlin. The Wall included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses.

The separate and much longer Inner German border (the IGB) demarcated the border between East and West Germany. Both borders came to symbolize the Iron Curtain between Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc.

The Berlin Wall

On August 23, 1989, Hungary removed its physical border defences with Austria, and in September more than 13,000 East German tourists in Hungary escaped to Austria. This set up a chain of events. The Hungarians prevented many more East Germans from crossing the border and returned them to Budapest. These East Germans flooded the West German embassy and refused to return to East Germany. The East German government responded by disallowing any further travel to Hungary, but allowed those already there to return. This triggered a similar incident in neighboring Czechoslovakia. On this occasion, the East German authorities allowed them to leave, providing that they used a train which transited East Germany on the way. This was followed by mass demonstrations within East Germany itself.

Walking through Checkpoint Charlie, 10 Nov 1989

East German construction workers

building the Berlin Wall,

November 20, 1961

Germans standing on top of the wall, 1989; it would begin to be torn apart in the following days.

View in 1986 from the west side of

graffiti art on the wall's infamous

"death strip"

Map of the location of the Berlin Wall,

showing checkpoints.

Memorial to the Victims of the Wall

slide16

Cold War

Gorbachev reforms

Glasnost

Perestroika

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

2 March 1931

Privolnove, Russian SFSR

Was the policy of maximal publicity,

openness, and transparency in the

activities of all government institutions

in the Soviet Union, together with

freedom of information

Is the Russian term for the political

and economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuration of the Soviet political and economic system.

Economic reforms

Law on Cooperatives

Political reforms

Changes in governmental structures

Collapse of the communist system

Soviet dissolution

references

Berlin Wall. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall

  • Cold War Museum. http://www.coldwar.org/
  • Cold War. Library of Congress. www.loc.gov
  • List of leaders of the Soviet Union. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_leaders_of_the_Soviet_Union
  • Soviet Union: Heads of State: 1922-1991. http://www.archontology.org/nations/ussr/ussr_state/
References