CURRICULAR CONTROVERSIES OF THE 1950’s ALTERNATE INTERPRETATIONS Progressivism and Essentialism: Meeting the Needs of Our Global Economy Presented to Dr. Agostino and ILEAD 5 By: Gita Maharaja Course: Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education (Fall 2006)
Our Global Economy • The technology Revolution has been the first force leading to globalization. • Interdependence among countries of the world - international trade, exchange of goods and services - exchange of economic resources( labor, capital and entrepreneurship) • According to Peter Drucker (1993), students who will graduate from high school in the 21st century will face a new world order. Their daily contacts will include diverse ethnic, gender, linguistic, racial and socioeconomics backgrounds. • Competition at a global level • Scientific and Technlogical innovation • Intercultural dependence • Cultural Dependence • Rapid productivity growth
Technological Education in our Global Economy • According to Snyder (1987), more than 50% of the workforce are information workers. • In reviewing “A Nation at Risk’, “Americans for the 21st Century”, Actions for Excellence and “Making the Grade” reports, Strickland (1985) brought out the relationship between education and national security resulting in the need for technological education
Current and Future Career and Technological Education- a Synthesis of Progressivism and Essentialism • Has shifted from a job-specific vocational preparation to a more academic-based approach similar to Dewey’s notion of education through occupations. • Assessment is based on standardized and norm-reference tests (portfolios, exhibitions, demonstrations) combining both progressivist and essentialist methods of assessment. • New Curriculum is based on the principle that students must demonstrate mastery of rigorous industry standards, high academic standards and related general education. (Lynch, 2000) • Is and will continue to be contextually- based, reflecting Dewey’s philosophy of education about learning takes place within a context.
Current and Future Career and Technological Education • Has a Common Core – Kincheloe(1999) described it as a “pedagogy at work” which include social, economic, historical, and philosophical foundations. • Interdisciplinary Curriculum • Cooperative Education • Developing problem-solving , communication and team work skills which are at the core of the curriculum development.
“Back-to-basics” Curriculum for the global economy of the 21st century Essentialism – a philosophy of curriculum that means teaching and learning those things that are essential to success in life. • Meet the needs of the changing global society by placing emphasis on skills for jobs, emphasizing the importance of computer literacy • Focus on national interest, for example, the need for strong military, scientists, engineers, health-related specialists. • A rigorous course of study to develop productive citizens to meet the challenges of the competitive economy. • Core knowledge curriculum, language, math, english, science, history and geography, is future-oriented developing skills and knowledge for future life. • Teachers are the directors of learning and need to be trained to face the challenges of the 21st century.
Education in the 21st Century: Need for Building Intercultural and Cultural Competencies According to research from the Progressive Policy Institute (a project of the Third Way Foundation): 1. Globalization call for new competencies in language, world history, global health and international affairs. 2. Most prospective teachers do not take any international-related courses and have low participation rates in study-abroad programs 3. Lack of distance learning in languages Source: http://www.ppionline.org
Need for Building Intercultural and Cultural Competencies • According to the American Council on Education (ACE 2000), - low level of global awareness - a decline in foreign language enrollments from 16% in 1990’s to 8% in 2000 - less than 1% of students study abroad each year - a decrease in foreign language graduation in 4-year institutions from 34% in 1965 to about 20% in 1995 • Second Language learning should begin from primary school and continue to high school and college level. Source: http://www.acenet.edu/programs/international/intl-reseach.cfm
Globalization: Thoughts for Educators • According to the American Council on the teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), there is a need for language education designed, implemented and assessed around proficiency. • Goals of language instruction should include communication, culture, intercultural comparisons, and connections between learners and communities. (ACTFL) • Many U.S. institutions need to move toward “competency-based” language teaching that stresses learner outcomes over teacher input, as a method of assessment. (ACTFL) Source: http://www.actfl.org
Globalization: Thoughts for Educators • Fantini(1984) suggested an experiential approach in addition to traditional knowledge approach of developing intercultural skills, attitude and awareness. Fantini’s highlights of experiential + traditional education: - Getting involved and doing + watching and listening - Student and teacher sharing responsibility for learning + teacher being responsible for learning - Identifying problems and solutions + memorizing information - Understanding learners’ interest and motivation for what needs to be learned + reinforcing others’ ideas of what needs to be learned - Apply learning practically for immediate use + future use
Globalization: Thoughts for Educators • Study by Education Trust, a Washington-based research group (2001) reported that less than 50% of schoolchildren read proficiently at their level • According to a report by the Educational Testing Service, Policy Information Center (2002), literacy among adults is 12th on a list of 20 industrialized counties. • The report also indicated that 45% of Americans have the inability to read or write at the high-school graduate level
SUMMARY • To remain competitive in a rapidly changing global economy, school quality needs to be more focused on new ideas and experimentation. • The key to future education is an emphasis on an innovative rather than a static approach. • Education is the long-term solution to improving the nation’s ability to adjust to the challenges of 21st century global economy. • Growing need for experiential learning, hands-on training in addition to traditional classroom learning • We need to become better global participants, appreciating our own culture and understanding other cultures.
REFERENCES • http://www.actfl.org • http://www.acenet.edu/programs/international/intl_research.cfm • Ayers, R.U.(1990). Technological transformations and longwaves. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 36, 1-37 • Baker G.E., Boser R.A., Householder D.L. (1992). Coping at the Crossroads: Societal and Educational Transformation in the United States. Journal of Technology Education, Vol. 4, No. 1. • Glatthorn, A. A. (1987). Curriculum leadership. Glenview, IL : Scott Foresman • Braundy, M. “Dewey’s Technological Literacy: Past, Present andFuture”. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, Volume 41, Number 2, Summer 2004 • Clark, E.T. (1917). Designing and Implementing an Integrated Curriculum: A Student-Centered Approach. Brandon, VT: Holistic Education Press • Education Trust, “Youth at the Crossroads : Facing High School andBeyond.” Thinking K-16, Winter 2001
REREFENCES (cont.) • Ellis, A. K. (2004). Exemplars of Curriculum Theory. Larchmont, • NY, Eye on Education, Inc. • Fantini, Al. (1984). Cross-Cultural Education:A Guide for Leaders • and Educators. Brattle, VT: School for International Training • www.philadelphiafed.org (Retrieved 10/15/2006) • Snyder, D.P. (1987). Inevitable forces for change. Insight, 4(7), • 1-6 • Strickland, C.E.(1985). Sputnik reform revisited. Education • Studies: A Journal in the Foundations of Education, 16(1), 15-21 • Sum, A, Kirsch I, and Taggart, R, “The Twin Challenges of • Mediocrity and Inequality : Literacy in the U.S. from an • International Perspective,” Policy Information Center, Educational • Testing Service, 2002