Parkinson’s
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Parkinson’s Disease. Introduction. Second most common human neurodegenerative disorder. Prevalence of 1 out 272 in U.S. Increases to 4 to 5% for ages 85 and over. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Wrote an Essay on the “Shaking Palsy.”. Symptoms.

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Introduction

Introduction

Second most common human neurodegenerative disorder.

Prevalence of 1 out 272 in U.S.

Increases to 4 to 5% for ages 85 and over.

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantianigra.



Symptoms

Symptoms

Four Cardinal Signs

T remor

R igidity

A kinesian and bradykinesia

P ostural instability


Pathogenesis
Pathogenesis

Four theories are given:

  • Oxidative damage

  • Environmental toxins

  • Genetic mutations (LRRK2, PARK2, PARK7, PINK1, SNCA and other unidentified genes)

  • Accelerated aging


Diagnosis
Diagnosis

  • No definitive tests for PD. PET scans can aid to determine levels of dopamine.

  • Difficult to diagnose, many symptoms shared with other disorders.

  • Medical history and neurological tests are conducted to diagnose.

  • Usually, if two of the cardinal symptoms are present.


Treatment
Treatment

  • Physical Therapy

  • Drug Therapy

  • Surgery


Role of biotechnology in parkinson s disease
Role of Biotechnology in Parkinson’s disease:

  • Stem cell therapy

  • Gene therapy

  • Diagnostic marker